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Campanula medium

Campanula medium , Photo: Michael Lahanas

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Campanulaceae
Subfamilia: Campanuloideae
Genus: Campanula
Species: Campanula medium
Name

Campanula medium L., Sp. Pl. 1: 167 (1753).
Synonyms

Homotypic
Rapuntia media (L.) Chevall., Fl. Gén. Env. Paris, ed. 2, 2: 526 (1836).
Medium grandiflorum Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. 9: 553 (1838).
Talanelis medium (L.) Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 70 (1838).
Marianthemum medium (L.) Schur, Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 4: 48 (1853).
Heterotypic
Campanula grandiflora Lam., Fl. Franç. 3: 334 (1779).
Campanula florida Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 127 (1796).
Sykoraea hortensis Opiz, Seznam: 94 (1852).
Marianthemum grandiflorum Czerw. & L.Schwarz, Index Seminum (KRA, Cracow) 1871: 9 (1872).
Campanula bourdiniana Gand., Fl. Lyon.: 146 (1875).
Campanula medium var. bourdiniana (Gand.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 476 (1879).
Campanula medium f. alba Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3, 1: 564 (1894).
Campanula medium f. caesia Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3, 1: 564 (1894).
Campanula medium f. calycantha Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3, 1: 564 (1894).
Campanula medium f. coerulea Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3, 1: 564 (1894).
Campanula medium f. rosea Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3, 1: 564 (1894).
Campanula medium f. striata Voss, Vilm. Blumengärtn. ed. 3, 1: 564 (1894).
Campanula medium var. calycanthema Nicholls, Garden (London, 1871-1927) 48: 295 (1895).

Distribution
Native distribution areas:
Campanula medium

Continental: Europe
Regional: Northern Europe
Great Britain.
Regional: Middle Europe
Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary.
Regional: Southwestern Europe
France, Spain.
Regional: Southeastern Europe
Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Romania.
Regional: Eastern Europe
Krym, Ukraine.
Continental: Australasia
Regional: New Zealand
New Zealand North, New Zealand South.
Continental: Northern America
Regional: Western Canada
British Columbia.
Regional: Eastern Canada
New Brunswick, Ontario.
Regional: Northwestern U.S.A.
Montana, Oregon.
Regional: Northeastern U.S.A.
Connecticut, Michigan, New York.
Note: Grey script indicates introduced occurrences.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

Campanula medium

Campanula medium , Photo: Michael Lahanas

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 167. Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Campanula medium in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Jul. 22. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2019. Campanula medium. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Jul. 22. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Campanula medium. Published online. Accessed: Jul 22 2019.
The Plant List 2013. Campanula medium in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Jul 22.
Tropicos.org 2019. Campanula medium. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Jul 22.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Campanula medium in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Marienglockenblume
English: Canterbury Bells
español: Farolillos
suomi: Maariankello
français: Campanule carillon
italiano: Campanula toscana
Nederlands: Mariëtteklokje
русский: Колокольчик средний
ไทย: ระฆังแคนเตอร์บรี

Campanula medium, common name Canterbury bells, is an annual or biennial flowering plant of the genus Campanula, belonging to the family Campanulaceae. In floriography, it represents gratitude, or faith and constancy.

Etymology

The specific epithet medium means that this plant has intermediate characteristics in respect of other species of the genus Campanula. In Persian, it is called گل استکانی (gol-e estekani) meaning "glass flower", because the flower resembles a drinking glass.
Description
Close-up on a flower of Campanula medium

Campanula medium reaches approximately 60–80 cm (24–31 in) in height. This biennial herbaceous plant forms rosettes of leaves in the first year, stems and flowers in the second one. The stem is erect, robust, reddish-brown and bristly hairy. The basal leaves are stalked and lanceolate to elliptical and 12–15 cm (5–6 in) long with serrated leaf edge. The upper leaves are smaller, lanceolate and sessile, almost embracing the stem.

The flowers are arranged in a racemose inflorescence of extremely long-lasting blooms. These attractive bell-shaped flowers are short-stalked, large and hermaphroditic, with different shades of violet-blue or rarely white. The corolla has five fused petals with lightly bent lobes (known as a coronate flower type).

The flowering period extends from May to July in the Northern Hemisphere. The flowers are either self-fertilized (autogamy) or pollinated by insects such as bees and butterflies (entomogamy).[1] The seeds ripen from August to September and are dispersed by gravity alone (barochory).
Distribution

Campanula medium originates in southern Europe. It is naturalized in most of European countries and in North America and it is widely cultivated for its beautiful flowers.
Habitat

It grows on stony, rocky and bushy slopes, at an altitude of 0–1,500 metres (0–4,921 ft) above sea level.
Gardening

In gardens, they are best in massed planting in borders or among shrubs. It prefers cool or warm zones; not suitable for the tropics or hot, dry regions. Seeds take 14–21 days to germinate. The plant thrives in lightly shaded to sunny locations in well-drained soil. Canterbury bells grows nicely in flower beds, borders, and containers. Keep well watered.
Uses
This flower works well cut in floral arrangements. Beekeepers sometimes use the Canterbury Bell for making potently sweet honey.

Cultivars

Campanula medium 'Alba'
Campanula medium 'Bells of Holland'
Campanula medium 'Caerulea'
Campanula medium 'Calycanthema'
Campanula medium 'Champion Blue (dark flowers)
Campanula medium 'Champion lavender' (light purple flowers)
Campanula medium 'Champion Pink' (pink flowers)
Campanula medium 'Chelsea Pink' (pink flowers)
Campanula medium 'Muse Rose'
Campanula medium 'Rosea'
Campanula medium 'Russian Pink'

References

"Campanula medium". Plants for a Future.

Pink, A. (2004). Gardening for the Million. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.
Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia – Edagricole – 1982, Vol. II, pag. 682

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