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Campanula thyrsoides

Campanula thyrsoides (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Campanulaceae
Subfamilia: Campanuloideae
Genus: Campanula
Species: Campanula thyrsoides
Subspecies: C. thyrsoides subsp. carniolica - C. thyrsoides subsp. thyrsoides
Name

Campanula thyrsoides L., Sp. Pl.: 167 (1753).
Synonyms

Homotypic
Campanula macrorhiza var. thyrsoides (L.) Vuk., Linnaea 26: 330 (1853).

Distribution
Native distribution areas:
Campanula thyrsoides

Continental: Europe
Regional: Central Europe
Austria; Bulgaria; France; Germany; Italy; Switzerland; Yugoslavia

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 167. Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Campanula thyrsoides in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2019 Jul. 25. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2019. Campanula thyrsoides. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2019 Jul. 25. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Campanula thyrsoides. Published online. Accessed: Jul 25 2019.
The Plant List 2013. Campanula thyrsoides in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published online. Accessed: 2019 Jul 25.
Tropicos.org 2019. Campanula thyrsoides. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 25 Jul 2019.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Campanula thyrsoides in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.

Vernacular names

Campanula thyrsoides is a flowering plant belonging to the family Campanulaceae.

Etymology

The species name “thyrsoides” derives from the Latin "thyrsus" (a staff of giant fennel covered with ivy vines and leaves and associated with Dionysus) and refers to the shape of the upright inflorescence of this plant, similar to a panicle with severals flowers on opposite pedicels.
Subspecies

Subspecies include:[2][3][4]

Campanula thyrsoides thyrsoides
Campanula thyrsoides carniolica

Distribution and habitat

This species is widespread in the Alps, in the Jura mountains and in the Balkans (Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, northern Italy, Serbia, Slovenia and France). [3]

These plants occurs in limestone alpine lawns on the alpine or subalpine level, generally from 1500 to 2600 meters of altitude, but sometimes from 1000 meters. [5]
Description
Close-up on flowers of Campanula thyrsoides
Distribution Map

Campanula thyrsoides reaches approximately 70–100 cm (28–39 in) in height. It is a herbaceous erect and perennial flowering plant with a showy dense inflorescence with up to 200 bell-shaped pale yellow flower.

The stem is densely leafed, the basal leaves are elongated lanceolate and the stem leaves are tongue-shaped.[6]

The cycle of the plant is biennial (in the first year of life the plant completes its vegetative development, in the second it blooms and bears fruit), while the buds are placed at ground level. Flowering time generally lasts from July toAugust, but sometimes as early as June.

These plants are hermaphroditic. Pollination occurs through insects (entomogamous pollination) or it is autogamous. Each capsule fruit contains around 120 to 180 seeds. The dissemination of seeds is barochoric.
Bibliography

Aldén, B., S. Ryman, & M. Hjertson. 2012. Svensk Kulturväxtdatabas, SKUD (Swedish Cultivated and Utility Plants Database; online resource) URL: www.skud.info
Crook, C. H. 1951. Campanulas: their cultivation and classification.
Davis, P. H., ed. 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening
Jovanovic, S. 1970–1977. Flora SR Srbije.
Kadereit J.W. & Jeffrey C., The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, Volume VIII. Asterales. Pag 41, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
Kovačić, S. 2004. The genus Campanula L. (Campanulaceae) in Croatia, circum-Adriatic and west Balkan region. Acta Bot. Croat. 63:184.
Lewis, P. & M. Lynch. 1998. Campanulas: a gardener's guide 154.
Sandro Pignatti, Flora d'Italia. Vol. 2, Bologna, Edagricole, 1982, pg. 691, ISBN 88-506-2449-2.
Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea.
Wolfgang Lippert Dieter Podlech, Fiori, TN Tuttonatura, 1980.

References

The Plant List
Catalogue of Life
U.S. Department of Agriculture
NBCI
Erhard Dörr, Wolfgang Lippert: Flora des Allgäus und seiner Umgebung. Band 2, IHW, Eching 2004, ISBN 3-930167-61-1, S. 551.
Tela-botanica (in French)

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