- Art Gallery -

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Brassicales

Familia: Brassicaceae
Tribus: Cardamineae
Genus: Cardamine
Subgenera (3): C. subg. Cardamine – C. subg. Dentaria – C. subg. Janchenia

Species overview:
A

C. abchasica – C. acris – C. adriatica – C. africana – C. albertii – C. alpina – C. altigena – C. amara – C. amariformis – C. amplexicaulis – C. amporitana – C. anemonoides – C. angulata – C. angustata – C. apennina – C. appendiculata – C. arakiana – C. armoracioides – C. asarifolia – C. aschersoniana – C. astoniae – C. auriculata
B

C. balnearia – C. barbareoides – C. battagliae – C. bellidifolia – C. bilobata – C. bipinnata – C. blaisdellii – C. bodinieri – C. bonariensis – C. breweri – C. bulbifera – C. bulbosa
C

C. calcicola – C. caldeirarum – C. californica – C. calliphaea – C. calthifolia – C. carnosa – C. caroides – C. carrii – C. castellana – C. cebollana – C. changbaiana – C. chelidonia – C. chenopodiifolia – C. cheotaiyienii – C. chilensis – C. circaeoides – C. clematitis – C. concatenata – C. conferta – C. constancei – C. cordata – C. cordifolia – C. corymbosa – C. crassifolia – C. cubita
D

C. debilis – C. delavayi – C. densiflora – C. dentata – C. depressa – C. digitata – C. diphylla – C. dissecta – C. douglassii – C. dubia
E

C. elegantula – C. engleriana – C. enneaphyllos – C. enriquei – C. eremita
F

C. fallax – C. fargesiana – C. fialae – C. flagellifera – C. flexuosa – C. fragariifolia – C. franchetiana – C. franklinensis – C. fulcrata
G

C. gallaecica – C. geraniifolia – C. glacialis – C. glanduligera – C. glauca – C. glechomifolia – C. gouldii – C. gracilis – C. graeca – C. granulifera – C. granulosa – C. griffithii – C. guatemalensis – C. gunnii
H

C. heptaphylla – C. hirsuta – C. holmgrenii – C. hongdeyuana – C. hupingshanensis – C. hydrocotyloides – C. hygrophila
I

C. impatiens – C. incisa – C. insueta
J

C. jamesonii – C. jejuna – C. jonselliana
K

C. keysseri – C. kitaibelii – C. komarovii – C. konaensis – C. kruesselii – C. kuankuoshuiensis
L

C. lacustris – C. lanceolaris – C. latior – C. leucantha – C. lihengiana – C. lilacina – C. linearilobia – C. lojanensis – C. longii – C. longipedicellata – C. loxostemonoides – C. luxurians – C. lyrata
M

C. macrophylla – C. macrostachya – C. majovskii – C. marginata – C. marholdii – C. maritima – C. matthioli – C. maxima – C. mexicana – C. micranthera – C. microphylla – C. microthrix – C. microzyga – C. millsiana – C. moirensis – C. monteluccii – C. montenegrina – C. multiflora – C. multijuga
N

C. nasturtioides – C. nepalensis – C. niigatensis – C. nipponica – C. nuttallii
O

C. obliqua – C. occidentalis – C. occulta – C. ocoana – C. oligosperma
P

C. pacensis – C. pachystigma – C. pancicii – C. papillata – C. papuana – C. parviflora – C. pattersonii – C. paucifolia – C. paucijuga – C. paxiana – C. pectinata – C. pedata – C. penduliflora – C. pensylvanica – C. pentaphyllos – C. penzesii – C. picta – C. plumierii – C. polemonioides – C. pratensis – C. prorepens – C. pseudotrifoliolata – C. pseudowasabi – C. pulchella – C. purpurascens – C. purpurea – C. pygmaea
Q

C. quinquefolia
R

C. raphanifolia – C. repens – C. resedifolia – C. rhodopaea – C. rivularis – C. robusta – C. rockii – C. rostrata – C. rotundifolia – C. rupestris – C. rupicola
S

C. scaposa – C. schinziana – C. schulzii – C. scutata – C. seidlitziana – C. seravschanica – C. serbica – C. silana – C. simplex – C. sphenophylla – C. stenoloba – C. subcarnosa – C. subterranea
T

C. tanakae – C. tangutorum – C. tenera – C. tenuifolia – C. tenuirostris – C. tepelenensis – C. thyrsoidea – C. tianqingiae – C. torrentis – C. trichocarpa – C. trifida – C. trifolia – C. trifoliolata – C. tryssa – C. tuberosa
U

C. uliginosa – C. umbellata
V

C. variabilis – C. victoris – C. violacea – C. volckmannii – C. vulgaris
W

C. waldsteinii – C. wiedemanniana
X

C. xinfenii
Y

C. yezoensis – C. yunnanensis
Source(s) of checklist:
Name

Cardamine L. (1753)

Type species: Cardamine pratensis L.

Synonyms

Dentaria L.
Dracamine Nieuwl.
Heterocarpus Phil. (1856), non Wight (1853)
Iti Garnock-Jones & P.N. Johnson
Loxostemon Hook.f. & Thomson
Porphyrocodon Hook.f.
Pteroneurum DC.
Sphaerotorrhiza (O.E.Schulz) A.P.Khokhr.

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 654. Reference page.
Schulz, O.E. 1903: Monographie der Gattung Cardamine. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie, 32: 280–623.

Links

Koch, M.A. et al. 2019. Cardamine in BrassiBase Tools and biological resources to study characters and traits in the Brassicaceae. Published online. Accessed: 2019 May 27.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Cardamine. Published online. Accessed: May 27 2019.
The Plant List 2013. Cardamine in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published online. Accessed: 2019 May 27.
Tropicos.org 2019. Cardamine. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 27 May 2019.

Vernacular names
العربية: حرف
azərbaycanca: Ürəkotu
беларуская: Зубніца
čeština: řeřišnice
dansk: Springklap
Deutsch: Schaumkräuter
dolnoserbski: Žerlina
English: Bittercress
Esperanto: Kardamino
español: Berro Amargo
eesti: Jürilill
فارسی: ترتیزک باتلاقی
suomi: Litukat
hornjoserbsce: Žerchwica
Ido: Kardamino
ქართული: ტყის წიწმატი
қазақша: Баймана
lietuvių: Kartenė
Nederlands: Veldkers
norsk: Bekkekarse, Engkarseslekta
polski: Rzeżucha
русский: Сердечник
slovenčina: žerušnica
svenska: Bräsmesläktet
Türkçe: Dişlikök
українська: Жеруха
中文: 碎米荠属

Cardamine is a large genus of flowering plants in the mustard family, Brassicaceae, known as bittercresses and toothworts. It contains more than 200 species of annuals and perennials.[1] Species in this genus can be found worldwide, except the Antarctic,[1] in diverse habitats. The name Cardamine is derived from the Greek kardaminē, water cress, from kardamon, pepper grass.[2]

Description

The leaves can have different forms, from minute to medium in size. They can be simple, pinnate or bipinnate. They are basal and cauline (growing on the upper part of the stem), with narrow tips. They are rosulate (forming a rosette). The blade margins can be entire, serrate or dentate. The stem internodes lack firmness.

The nearly radially symmetrical flowers grow in a racemose many-flowered inflorescence or in corymbs. The white, pink or purple flowers are minute to medium-sized. The petals are longer than the sepals. The fertile flowers are hermaphroditic.
Taxonomy

The genus Cardamine was first formally named in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum.[3] As of January 2019, there are 230 accepted species in Kew's Plants of the World Online database.[1] An additional 31 new species found in New Zealand were described in 2017 but are not listed in the Plants of the World Online as of January 2019.[4][1]

The genus name Dentaria is a commonly used synonym for some species of Cardamine.
Species
Main article: List of Cardamine species

Select species include:[1]

Cardamine amara L. – large bittercress
Cardamine angulata Hook. – seaside bittercress, angled bittercress
Cardamine angustata O.E.Schulz – slender toothwort
Cardamine bellidifolia L. – alpine bittercress, alpine cress
Cardamine bilobata Kirk
Cardamine breweri S.Watson – Brewer's bittercress
Cardamine bulbifera (L.) Crantz – coralroot
Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb. ex Muhl.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. – bulbous bittercress, spring cress
Cardamine caldeirarum Guthnick ex Seub. – Azorean bittercress
Cardamine californica (Nutt.) Greene – milkmaids
Cardamine clematitis Shuttlew. ex S.Watson – small mountain bittercress
Cardamine concatenata (Michx.) O.Schwarz – cutleaf toothwort, cut-leaved toothwort
Cardamine constancei Detling – Constance's bittercress
Cardamine cordifolia A.Gray – heartleaf bittercress, large Mountain bittercress
Cardamine corymbosa Hook.f. – New Zealand bittercress
Cardamine debilis DC. – roadside bittercress
Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) Alph.Wood – crinkleroot, twin-leaved toothwort
Cardamine dissecta (Leavenw.) Al-Shehbaz – forkleaf toothwort
Cardamine douglassii Britton – limestone bittercress
Cardamine enneaphyllos (L.) Crantz – drooping bittercress
Cardamine fargesiana Al-Shehbaz
Cardamine flagellifera O.E.Schulz – Blue Ridge bittercress
Cardamine flexuosa With. – woodland bittercress, wavy bittercress
Cardamine glacialis (G.Forst.) DC.
Cardamine gouldii Al-Shehbaz
Cardamine gunnii Hewson
Cardamine heptaphylla (Vill.) O.E.Schulz – pinnate coralroot
Cardamine hirsuta L. – hairy bittercress
Cardamine impatiens L. – narrowleaf bittercress
Cardamine jamesonii Hook.
Cardamine leucantha (Tausch) O.E.Schulz – Korean bittercress[5]
Cardamine longii Fernald – Long's bittercress
Cardamine lyrata Bunge
Cardamine macrocarpa Brandegee – largeseed bittercress
Cardamine maxima (Nutt.) Alph.Wood – large toothwort
Cardamine micranthera Rollins – small-anthered bittercress, streambank bittercress
Cardamine microphylla Adams – small-leaf bittercress
Cardamine nuttallii Greene – Nuttall's toothwort
Cardamine nymanii Gand. – lady's smock
Cardamine occidentalis (S.Watson ex B.L.Rob.) Howell – big western bittercress
Cardamine oligosperma Nutt. – Idaho bittercress, little western bittercress
Cardamine pachystigma (S.Watson) Rollins – serpentine bittercress
Cardamine parviflora L. – sand bittercress, small-flowered bittercress
Cardamine pattersonii L.F.Hend. – Saddle Mountain bittercress
Cardamine penduliflora O.E.Schulz – Willamette Valley bittercress
Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd. – Pennsylvania bittercress, Quaker bittercress
Cardamine pentaphyllos (L.) Crantz
Cardamine pratensis L. – cuckoo flower, lady's smock, meadow cress
Cardamine purpurascens (O.E.Schulz) Al-Shehbaz & al.
Cardamine purpurea Cham. & Schltdl. – purple bittercress
Cardamine raphanifolia Pourr. – greater cuckooflower
Cardamine rotundifolia Michx. – American bittercress, mountain watercress
Cardamine rupicola (O.E.Schulz) C.L.Hitchc. – cliff bittercress
Cardamine trifolia L. – trefoil cress
Cardamine uliginosa M.Bieb.

Ecology
Cardamine pratensis from Thomé: Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885

This plant is also used as one of the main food sources for the butterfly Pieris oleracea.[6][page needed]
Uses

The roots of most species are edible raw.[7]

Some species were reputed to have medicinal qualities (treatment of heart or stomach ailments).
References

"Cardamine L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanical Gardens Kew. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
"Definition of CARDAMINE". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
"Cardamine L." ipni.org. International Plant Names Index. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
Heenan, Peter B. (5 December 2017). "A taxonomic revision of Cardamine L. (Brassicaceae) in New Zealand". Phytotaxa. 330 (1): 1. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.330.1.1.
English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 387. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2016 – via Korea Forest Service.
Davis, Samantha L. (17 May 2015). Evaluating Threats to the Rare Butterfly, Pieris Virginiensis (PDF) (PhD thesis). Wright State University. pp. 24, 27, 43. S2CID 89373310. Retrieved 25 December 2021.

Angier, Bradford (1974). Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books. p. 226. ISBN 0-8117-0616-8. OCLC 799792.

Bibliography
Taxonomic Revision of Cardamine
Lihová, J.; Marhold, K. (2003). "Taxonomy and distribution of the Cardamine pratensis group (Brassicaceae) in Slovenia". Phyton (Horn). 43: 241–261.
Lihová, J.; Marhold, K.; Neuffer, B. (2000). "Taxonomy of Cardamine amara in the Iberian Peninsula". Taxon. 49 (4): 747–763. doi:10.2307/1223975. JSTOR 1223975. S2CID 85625889.
Sun, Jianqiang; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Hofhuis, Hugo; Shimizu, Kentaro; Hay, Angela; Shimizu, Kentaro K.; Sese, Jun (2020). "A recently formed triploid Cardamine insueta inherits leaf vivipary and submergence tolerance traits of parents". Front. Genet. 11: 567262. doi:10.3389/fgene.2020.567262. PMC 7573311. PMID 33133153. S2CID 222135582.

Plants Images

Biology Encyclopedia

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/"
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

Home - Hellenica World