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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales

Familia: Caryophyllaceae
Tribus: Alsineae – Arenarieae – Caryophylleae – Corrigioleae – Eremogoneae – Paronychieae – Polycarpeae – Sagineae – Sclerantheae – Sileneae – Sperguleae
Overview of genera

AcanthophyllumAchyronychiaAgrostemmaAllochrusaAnkyropetalumArenariaAtocionAugusteaBalkanaBolanthusBrachystemmaBufoniaCardionemaCerastiumCerdiaChaetonychiaCherleriaColobanthusCometesCorrigiolaCyathophyllaDianthusDiaphanopteraDicheranthusDichodonDrymariaDrypisEremogoneEudiantheFacchiniaGraecobolanthusGymnocarposGypsophilaHabrosiaHayaHeliospermaHerniariaHeterochroaHolosteumHonckenyaIllecebrumKrauseolaLepyrodiclisLoeflingiaLychnisMcneilliaMesostemmaMicrophyesMinuartiaMinuartiellaMoehringiaMoenchiaMononeuriaMyosotonOdontostemmaOrtegiaParonychiaPentastemonodiscusPetroanaPetrocoptisPetrorhagiaPhilippiellaPhrynellaPiriniaPlettkeaPollichiaPolycarpaeaPolycarponPolytepalumPsammophiliellaPsammosilenePseudocherleriaPseudostellariaPteranthusPycnophyllopsisPycnophyllumReicheellaRhodalsineSabulinaSaginaSanctambrosiaSaponariaSchiedeaScleranthusScopulophilaShivparvatiaSileneSpergulaSpergulariaSphaerocomaStellariaStipulicidaTelephiumThuryaThylacospermumTriplateiaUebeliniaVaccariaVeleziaViscariaWilhelmsiaXerotia

Name

Caryophyllaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.

Type genus: Caryophyllus Mill. (1754) nom. illeg. non Caryophyllus L. (1753) nom. rej. against Syzygium Gaertn. 1788 nom. cons. Myrtaceae Juss. (1789)

Note: The traditional three subfamilies, Alsinoideae, Caryophylloideae and Paronychioideae are not longer used and the tribal circumscription above is now accepted (Harbaugh & al., 2010).
Synonyms

Heterotypic
Alsinaceae Bartl. in Bartl. & Wendl., Beitr. Bot. 2: 159. 1825, nom. cons.
Type genus: Alsine L.
Cerastiaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot. 271, 293. 1818.
Type genus: Cerastium L.
Corrigiolaceae Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl. 49. 1829.
Type genus: Corrigiola L.
Dianthaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot. 271, 293. 1818.
Type genus: Dianthus L.
Herniariaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 307. 1820.
Type genus: Herniaria L.
Illecebraceae R.Br., Prodr. 413. 1810, nom. cons.
Type genus: Illecebrum L.
Lychnidaceae Döll, Rhein. Fl. 638. 1843.
Type genus: Lychnis L.
Ortegaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar: 443. 1820.
Type genus: Ortegia L.
Paronychiaceae Juss., Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 2: 386. 1815.
Type genus: Paronychia Mill.
Polycarpaeaceae Mart., Consp. Regn. Veg. 49. 1835.
Type genus: Polycarpaea Lam.
Scleranthaceae J.Presl & C.Presl, Delic. Prag. 66. 1822.
Type genus: Scleranthus L.
Silenaceae Bartl. in Bartl. & Wendl., Beitr. Bot. 2: 160. 1825.
Type genus: Silene L., nom. cons.
Spergulaceae Bartl. in Bartl. & Wendl., Beitr. Bot. 2: 160. 1825.
Type genus: Spergula L.
Stellariaceae Bercht. & J.Presl, Přir. Rostlin 239. 1820.
Type genus: Stellaria L.
Telephiaceae Martynov, Tekhno-Bot. Slovar. 633. 1820.
Type genus: Telephium L.

References

Jussieu, A.L. de 1789. Genera Plantarum 299.
Dillenberger, M.S. & Kadereit, J.W. 2014. Maximum polyphyly: Multiple origins and delimitation with plesiomorphic characters require a new circumscription of Minuartia (Caryophyllaceae). Taxon 63(1): 64–88, S1–S21. DOI: 10.12705/631.5 JSTOR ResearchGate Reference page.
Greenberg, A.K. & Donoghue, M.J. 2011. Molecular systematics and character evolution in Caryophyllaceae. Taxon 60(6): 1637–1652. DOI: 10.1002/tax.606009 JSTOR PDF Reference page. .
Harbaugh, D.T., Nepokroeff, M., Rabeler, R.K., McNeill, J., Zimmer, E.A. & Wagner, W.L. 2010. A new lineage based tribal classification of the family Caryophyllaceae. International Journal of Plant Sciences 171(2): 185–198. DOI: 10.1086/648993 ResearchGate Reference page.
Hernández-Ledesma, P., Berendsohn, W. G., Borsch, T., Mering, S. v., Akhani, H., Arias, S., Castañeda-Noa, I., Eggli, U., Eriksson, R., Flores-Olvera, H., Fuentes-Bazán, S., Kadereit, G., Klak, C., Korotkova, N., Nyffeler R., Ocampo G., Ochoterena, H., Oxelman, B., Rabeler, R. K., Sanchez, A., Schlumpberger, B. O. & Uotila, P. 2015. A taxonomic backbone for the global synthesis of species diversity in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales. Willdenowia 45(3): 281–383. DOI: 10.3372/wi.45.45301 Open access Reference page.
Madhani, H., Rabeler, R.K., Pirani, A., Oxelman, B., Heubl, G. & Zarre, S. 2018. Untangling phylogenetic patterns and taxonomic confusion in tribe Caryophylleae (Caryophyllaceae) with special focus on generic boundaries. Taxon 67(1): 83–112. DOI: 10.12705/671.6 PDF Reference page.
Sadeghian, S., Zarre, S., Rabeler, R.K. & Heubl, G. 2015. Molecular phylogeny of Arenaria (Caryophyllaceae: tribe Arenarieae) and its allies inferred from nuclear DNA ITS and plastid DNA rps16 sequences. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 178(4): 648–669. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12293 Full text PDF Reference page.
Smissen, R.D., Clement, J.C., Garnock-Jones, P.J. & Chambers, G.K. 2002. Subfamilial relationships within Caryophyllaceae as inferred from 5′ ndhF sequences. American Journal of Botany 89(8): 1336–1341. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.89.8.1336 Reference page.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: قرنفلية
azərbaycanca: Qərənfilkimilər
беларуская: Гваздзіковыя
български: Карамфилови
català: Cariofil·làcies
čeština: Hvozdíkovité
dansk: Nellike-familien
Deutsch: Nelkengewächse
English: Pink Family, Carnation Family
Esperanto: Kariofilacoj
eesti: Nelgilised
فارسی: میخکیان
suomi: Kohokkikasvit
Nordfriisk: Neegelken
français: Caryophyllacées
galego: Cariofiláceas
עברית: ציפורניים
hrvatski: Klinčićevke
hornjoserbsce: Nalikowe rostliny
magyar: Szegfűfélék
հայերեն: Մեխակազգիներ
íslenska: Hjartagrasaætt
italiano: Cariofillacee
日本語: ナデシコ科
ქართული: მიხაკისებრნი
қазақша: Қалампырлар тұқымдасы
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಪೌದೆಮುಳ್ಳು
한국어: 석죽과
кыргызча: Чеге гүлдүлөр
lietuvių: Gvazdikiniai
македонски: Каранфили
മലയാളം: കാരിയോഫില്ലേസീ
Nederlands: Anjerfamilie
norsk nynorsk: Nellikfamilien
norsk: Nellikfamilien
polski: Goździkowate
português: Cariofiláceas
Runa Simi: Klawil yura rikch'aq ayllu
română: Cariofilacee
русский: Гвоздичные
slovenčina: Silenkovité
svenska: Nejlikväxter
Türkçe: Karanfilgiller
українська: Гвоздикові
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Chinniguldoshlar
Tiếng Việt: Họ Cẩm chướng
West-Vlams: Anjerachtign
walon: Djalofrinacêyes
中文: 石竹科

Caryophyllaceae, commonly called the pink family or carnation family, is a family of flowering plants. It is included in the dicotyledon order Caryophyllales in the APG III system, alongside 33 other families, including Amaranthaceae, Cactaceae, and Polygonaceae.[1] It is a large family, with 81 genera and about 2,625 known species.[3]

This cosmopolitan family of mostly herbaceous plants is best represented in temperate climates, with a few species growing on tropical mountains. Some of the more commonly known members include pinks and carnations (Dianthus), and firepink and campions (Lychnis and Silene). Many species are grown as ornamental plants, and some species are widespread weeds. Most species grow in the Mediterranean and bordering regions of Europe and Asia. The number of genera and species in the Southern Hemisphere is rather small, although the family does contain Antarctic pearlwort (Colobanthus quitensis), the world's southernmost dicot, which is one of only two flowering plants found in Antarctica.[4]

The name comes from Caryophyllus, an obsolete synonym of Dianthus.[5]
Contents

1 Description
2 Systematics
2.1 Genera
3 Unplaced
4 References
5 External links

Description

Despite its size and the somewhat doubtful mutual relationships, this family is rather uniform and easily recognizable.

Most are herbaceous annuals or perennials, dying off above ground each year. A few species are shrubs or small trees, such as some Acanthophyllum species.[6] Most plants are non-succulent; i.e. having no fleshy stems or leaves. The nodes on the stem are swollen. The leaves are almost always opposite,[7] rarely whorled. The blades are entire, petiolate, and often stipulate. These stipules are not sheath-forming.

The hermaphroditic flowers are terminal, blooming singly or branched or forked in cymes. The inflorescence is usually dichasial at least in the lower parts, which means that in the axil of each peduncle (primary flower stalk) of the terminal flower in the cyme, two new single-flower branches sprout up on each side of and below the first flower.[6] If the terminal flowers are absent, then this can lead to monochasia, i.e. a monoparous cyme with a single flower on each axis of the inflorescence. In the extreme, this leads to a single flower, such as in Githago or Arenaria.[6] The flowers are regular and mostly with five petals and five sepals, but sometimes with four petals.[7] The sepals may be free from one another or united. The petals may be entire, fringed or deeply cleft. The calyx may be cylindrically inflated, as in Silene. The stamens number five or 10 (or more rarely four or eight),[7] and are mostly isomerous with the perianth. The superior gynoecium has two to five carpels (members of a compound pistil) and is syncarpous; i.e. with these carpels united in a compound ovary. This ovary has one chamber inside the ovary. The fruit may be a utricle with a single seed or a capsule containing several seeds.[7]
Systematics
The "maiden pink", Dianthus deltoides, belongs to the core group of Silenoideae.
Minuartia gerardii belongs to a clade traditionally included in the Alsinoideae.
Paronychia argentea from the primitive Paronychioideae assemblage
Stellaria ruscifolia is traditionally placed in the Alsinoideae, but may not be a close relative of Minuartia.

Currently, Amaranthaceae and Caryophyllaceae are sister groups and considered closely related.

Formerly, Caryophyllaceae were considered the sister family to all of the remaining members of the suborder Caryophyllineae because they have anthocyanins, and not betalain pigments. However, cladistic analyses indicate Caryophyllaceae evolved from ancestors that contained betalain, reinforcing betalain as an accurate synapomorphy of the suborder.[8]

This family is traditionally divided in three subfamilies:

Alsinoideae: no stipules, petals not united
Silenoideae: no stipules, petals united
Paronychioideae: fleshy stipules, petals separate or united

The last, however, are a basal grade of rather primitive members of this family, not closely related, but simply retaining many plesiomorphic traits. Instead of a subfamily, most ought to be treated as genera incertae sedis, but Corrigiola and Telephium might warrant recognition as Corrigioleae. The Alsinoideae, on the other hand, seem to form two distinct clades, perhaps less some misplaced genera. Finally, the Silenoideae appear monophyletic at least for the most part, if some of the taxa misplaced in Alsinoideae are moved there; it may be that the name Caryophylloideae would apply for the revised delimitation.[9]

However, hybridization between many members of this family is rampant—particularly in the Silenoideae/Caryophylloideae—and some of the lineages of descent have been found to be highly complicated and do not readily yield to cladistic analysis.[10]
Genera

Acanthophyllum
Achyronychia – onyxflower, frost-mat
Agrostemma – corncockles
Allochrusa
Alsinidendron
Ankyropetalum
Arenaria – sandworts
Balkana
Bolanthus
Bolbosaponaria
Brachystemma
Bufonia
Cardionema
Cerastium – mouse-ear chickweeds
Cerdia
Colobanthus – pearlworts
Cometes
Corrigiola – strapworts
Cucubalus
Cyathophylla
Dianthus – carnations and pinks
Diaphanoptera
Dicheranthus
Drymaria
Drypis
Eremogone
Eudianthe
Facchinia
Geocarpon
Graecobolanthus
Gymnocarpos
Gypsophila – gypsophilas, baby's-breath
Habrosia
Haya
Heliosperma
Herniaria – ruptureworts
Holosteum – jagged chickweeds
Honckenya
Illecebrum
Kabulia
Krauseola
Kuhitangia
Lepyrodiclis
Lochia
Loeflingia
Lychnis – campions, catchflies
Melandrium
Mesostemma
Microphyes
Minuartia – sandworts, stitchworts
Moehringia – sandworts
Moenchia – upright chickweeds
Myosoton
Ochotonophila
Ortegia
Paronychia – chickweeds
Pentastemonodiscus
Petroana
Petrocoptis
Petrorhagia (previously known as Tunica)
Philippiella
Phrynella
Pinosia
Pirinia
Pleioneura
Plettkia
Pollichia
Polycarpaea
Polycarpon
Polytepalum
Psammophiliella
Pseudostellaria
Pteranthus
Pycnophyllopsis
Pycnophyllum
Reicheella
Sabulina
Sagina – pearlworts
Sanctambrosia
Saponaria – soapworts
Schiedea
Scleranthopsis
Scleranthus – knawels
Sclerocephalus
Scopulophila
Selleola
Silene – campions, catchflies
Spergula – spurreys
Spergularia – sea-spurreys
Sphaerocoma
Stellaria – chickweeds, stitchworts
Stipulicida
Thurya
Thylacospermum
Uebelinia
Vaccaria
Velezia
Wilhelmsia
Xerotia

Unplaced

Dadjoua Parsa described in 1960 in Fl. Iran and accepted by Catalogue of life,[11] but unplaced by Plants of the World Online.

References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
Reveal 2012.
Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
E. D. Rudolph (1965). "Antarctic lichens and vascular plants: their significance". BioScience. 15 (4): 285–287. doi:10.2307/1293425. JSTOR 1293425.
Caryophyllus in the Germplasm Resources Information Network.
A. V. S. S. Sambamurty (2005). "Caryophyllaceae (pink family)". Taxonomy of Angiosperms. I. K. International. pp. 270–279. ISBN 978-81-88237-16-6.
Robert H. Mohlenbrock (2001). "Caryophyllaceae – pink family". Flowering Plants: Pokeweeds, Four-o'clocks, Carpetweeds, Cacti, Purslanes, Goosefoots, Pigweeds, and Pinks. The illustrated flora of Illinois. SIU Press. pp. 146–255. ISBN 978-0-8093-2380-7.
Walter S. Judd; Christopher S. Campbell; Elizabeth A. Kellogg; Peter F. Stevens; Michael J. Donoghue (2008). Plant Systematics: a Phylogenetic Approach (3rd ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. ISBN 978-0-87893-407-2.
P. F. Stevens (9 June 2008). "Caryophyllaceae". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved 6 August 2008.
Per Erixon; Bengt Oxelman (2008). "Reticulate or tree-like chloroplast DNA evolution in Sileneae (Caryophyllaceae)?". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 48 (1): 313–325. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.04.015. PMID 18490181.
"Dadjoua Parsa | COL". www.catalogueoflife.org. Retrieved 19 February 2022.

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