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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Ajugoideae
Genus: Caryopteris
Species (7 accepted sensu Cantino et al (1999): C. forrestii – C. glutinosa – C. incana – C. jinshajiangensis – C. mongholicaC. tangutica – C. trichosphaera

Nothospecies (of garden origin): C. × clandonensis

Redirected synonymous species circumscribed here in error: C. bicolor - C. divaricata - C. foetida - C. nepalensis - C. paniculata
Name

Caryopteris Bunge Zap. Izd. Kazansk. Univ., reimpr., 4(2): 27 (1835)
Type species: Caryopteris mongholica Bunge, Zap. Izd. Kazansk. Univ., reimpr., 4(2): 28 (1835)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Barbula Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 366 (1790)
Mastacanthus Endl., Gen. Pl.: 638 (1838)
Cardioteucris C.Y.Wu

References

Cantino, P.D., Wagstaff, S.J. & Olmstead, R.G. (1999) Caryopteris (Lamiaceae) and the conflict between phylogenetic and pragmatic considerations in botanical nomenclature, Systematic Botany, 23: 369–386. Available on line [1]. Accessed 2014 June 9.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2014. Caryopteris in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 June 2. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2014. Caryopteris. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 June 2.
International Plant Names Index. 2014. Caryopteris. Published online. Accessed: June 2 2014.

Vernacular names
suomi: Rautaoksat

Caryopteris (bluebeard; Chinese: 莸属 you shu) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae (formerly often placed in the family Verbenaceae). They are native to east Asia (China, Korea, Japan, Mongolia).[1][2][3][4][5]

They are herbaceous plants or small shrubs growing to 1–4 m tall. The leaves are opposite, simple ovate to lanceolate, with an entire or crenate margin; they are often aromatic. The blue or white flowers are pollinated by butterflies and bumblebees. The fruit is a four-valved capsule containing four seeds.[3][4][5]

Species[1]

Caryopteris forrestii Diels - Guizhou, Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan
Caryopteris glutinosa Rehd. - Sichuan
Caryopteris incana (Thunb. ex Houtt.) Miq. - Taiwan, Korea, Japan, Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Zhejiang
Caryopteris jinshajiangensis Y.K.Yang & X.D.Cong - Yunnan
Caryopteris mongholica Bunge - Mongolia, Gansu, Hebei, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanxi
Caryopteris tangutica Maxim. - Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Shaanxi, Sichuan
Caryopteris trichosphaera W.W.Smith - Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan

formerly included

Caryopteris aureoglandulosa (Vaniot) C. Y. Wu = Schnabelia aureoglandulosa (Vaniot) P.D.Cantino
Caryopteris bicolor (Roxb. ex Hardw.) Mabb. = Pseudocaryopteris bicolor (Roxb. ex Hardw.) P.D.Cantino
Caryopteris divaricata Maxim = Tripora divaricata (Maxim.) P.D.Cantino
Caryopteris nepetifolia (Benth.) Maxim = Schnabelia nepetifolia (Benth.) P.D.Cantino
Caryopteris paniculata C.B.Clarke = Pseudocaryopteris paniculata (C.B.Clarke) P.D.Cantino
Caryopteris siccanea W.W.Sm. = Rubiteucris siccanea (W.W.Sm.) P.D.Cantino
Caryopteris terniflora Maxim. = Schnabelia terniflora (Maxim.) P.D.Cantino

Cultivation and uses

Though several Caryopteris species are grown in botanical gardens, as ornamental plants the species have largely been superseded in gardens by the hybrid Caryopteris × clandonensis (C. incana × C. mongholica). The accidental cross that produced it occurred in the garden of Arthur Simmonds at Clandon, near Guildford, Surrey.[6] In 1930, wishing to propagate C. mongholica, he gathered seeds from a plant that was growing near C. mastacanthus. When the seedlings eventually flowered in their second year, hybrids appeared. The final selection, however, was made of a self-sown volunteer that appeared under C. mastacanthus, and eventually smothered it. It began winning Royal Horticultural Society medals in 1933.[7][8] This small, deciduous, aromatic shrub has grey-green leaves and produces masses of blue flowers in late summer.[9]

Caryopteris × clandonensis, an unusual plant in American gardens in the 1960s,[10] has become more familiar there, especially in xeriscaping.

Like Buddleja, the woody stems can die back in the winter, particularly in colder climates and on heavy soils. They prefer well-drained, sandy soil in full sun, but does not need especially rich soil or constant moisture.

Leaves and herbaceous stems have a terpene aroma like eucalyptus, especially when lightly bruised.
Cultivars

There are several cultivars with flowers in shades of blue or white, including 'Blue Mist', 'Heavenly Blue', 'Longwood Blue', 'Dark Knight', 'Summer Sorbet' and 'Pershore'.

The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

'Arthur Simmonds',[11]
'First Choice' [12]
Hint of Gold = 'Lisaura'[13]
Sterling Silver = 'Lissilv'[14]
'Summer Sorbet' [15]
'Worcester Gold'[16]

References

Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant families
Germplasm Resources Information Network: Caryopteris Archived 2009-01-14 at the Wayback Machine
Flora of China: Caryopteris
Flora of Pakistan: Caryopteris
Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
David S. MacKenzie, Perennial Ground Covers, s.v. "Caryopteris × clandonensis 'Arthur Simmonds'".
Coats (1964) 1992.
"The genus is usually represented by Caryopteris × clandonensis, which has superseded all the original species". Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Caryopteris".
RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
Wayside Gardens introduced "blue Mist" in the 1950s: "several years ago" in Popular Gardening and Living Outdoors, 7 (1956:15).
"RHS Plant Selector - Caryopteris × clandonensis 'Arthur Simmonds'". Retrieved 15 April 2020.
"Caryopteris × clandonensis 'First Choice'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Caryopteris × clandonensis Hint of Gold = 'Lisaura'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Caryopteris × clandonensis Sterling Silver = 'Lissilv'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Caryopteris × clandonensis 'Summer Sorbet". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"Caryopteris × clandonensis 'Worcester Gold'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.

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