Catharanthus

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Gentianales
Familia: Apocynaceae
Subfamilia: Rauvolfioideae
Tribus: Vinceae
Genus: Catharanthus
Species: C. coriaceus - C. lanceus - C. longifolius - C. ovalis - C. pusillus - C. roseus - C. scitulus - C. trichophyllus

Name

Catharanthus G.Don, Gen. Hist. 4: 71, 94-95 1837.

Synonyms

* Ammocallis Small, Fl. S. E. U. S. 935. 1903.
* Lochnera Rchb. ex Endl., Gen. Pl. 583. 1838. nom. inval.

References

* Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 24 Feb 2009 [1].

Catharanthus (Madagascar Periwinkle) is a genus of eight species of herbaceous perennial plants, seven endemic to the island of Madagascar, the eighth native to the Indian subcontinent in southern Asia .[1][2] C. roseus goes by its common name "sadaphuli" (perennially flowering) in parts of Western India.

Species

Catharanthus coriaceus Markgr. Madagascar.
Catharanthus lanceus (Bojer ex A.DC.) Pichon. Madagascar.
Catharanthus longifolius (Pichon) Pichon. Madagascar.
Catharanthus ovalis Markgr. Madagascar.
Catharanthus pusillus (Murray) G.Don. Indian subcontinent.
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don. Madagascar (formerly known as Vinca rosea).
Catharanthus scitulus (Pichon) Pichon. Madagascar.
Catharanthus trichophyllus (Baker) Pichon. Madagascar.


Uses and cultivation

The species are self-propagating from seed; the seeds require a period of total darkness to germinate. Cuttings from mature plants will also root readily.
Illustration of C. roseus foliage and flowers

One species, C. roseus, has been widely cultivated and introduced, becoming an invasive species in some areas.

Pharmacological uses

C. roseus has gained interest from the pharmaceutical industry; the alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine from its sap have been shown to be an effective treatment for leukaemia and lymphoma. Although the sap is poisonous if ingested, some 70 useful alkaloids have been identified from it. In Madagascar, extracts have been used for hundreds of years in herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes, as hemostatics and tranquilizers, to lower blood pressure, and as disinfectants. The extracts are not without their side effects, however, which include hair loss.

Vinca alkaloids

Vinca alkaloids are anti-mitotic and anti-microtubule agents. They are now produced synthetically and used as drugs in cancer therapy[3] and as immunosuppressive drugs. These compounds are vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine and vinorelbine. Periwinkle extracts and derivatives, such as vinpocetine, are also used as nootropic drugs.[4]

Catharanthus lanceus contains up to 6% yohimbine in its leaves.[5]

References


^ Flora of Madagascar: Catharanthus
^ Germplasm Resources Information Network: Catharanthus
^ Takimoto CH, Calvo E. "Principles of Oncologic Pharmacotherapy" in Pazdur R, Wagman LD, Camphausen KA, Hoskins WJ (Eds) Cancer Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach. 11 ed. 2008.
^ DrugDigest: Catharanthus roseus
^ Madagascan Periwinkle

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