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Centaurea calcitrapa

Centaurea calcitrapa (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Carduoideae
Tribus: Cardueae
Subtribus: Centaureinae
Genus: Centaurea
Species: Centaurea calcitrapa
Subspecies: C. c. subsp. angusticeps – C. c. subsp. calcitrapa – C. c. subsp. cilicica
Name

Centaurea calcitrapa L., 1753
Homonyms

Centaurea calcitrapa Bieb. = Centaurea iberica subsp. iberica

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 917. Reference page.

Links

Hassler, M. 2018. Centaurea calcitrapa. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 May 04. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Centaurea calcitrapa. Published online. Accessed: May 04 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Centaurea calcitrapa in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 May 04.
Tropicos.org 2018. Centaurea calcitrapa. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 May 04.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Centaurea calcitrapa in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Stern-Flockenblume
English: Purple star thistle
español: Abrojo
suomi: Piikkikaunokki
français: Centaurée chausse-trappe
italiano: Fiordaliso stellato
Nederlands: Kalketrip
Türkçe: Timurdikeni

Centaurea calcitrapa is a species of flowering plant known by several common names, including red star-thistle[1] and purple starthistle. It is native to Europe but is rarely found there, it is known across the globe as an introduced species and often a noxious weed.[2][3] The species name calcitrapa comes from the word caltrop, a type of weapon covered in sharp spikes.[4][5]

Description

This an annual or biennial plant growing erect to a maximum height of one[6] to 1.3[4] metres.

The stems are hairless and grooved.[7]

It sometimes takes the shape of a mound, and it is finely to densely hairy to spiny. The leaves are dotted with resin glands. The lowermost may reach a length of 20 centimeters and are deeply cut into lobes. The inflorescence contains a few flower heads. Each is 1.5 to 2 centimeters long and oval in general shape. The phyllaries are green or straw-colored and tipped in tough, sharp yellow spines. The head contains many bright purple flowers. The fruit is an achene a few millimeters long which lacks a pappus.

It flowers from July until September, and the seeds ripen from August to October.

The Red Star-thistle has been identified as a Priority Species by the UK Biodiversity Action Plan. It is identified as 'vulnerable' by the UNIC and is listed as Nationally Rare in the UK Red Data Book. There is no national or Sussex BAP for this species.
Distribution

[8]

Native distribution

  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • Austria
  • Baltic states
  • Bulgaria
  • Cape Verde
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Egypt
  • Sinai Peninsula
  • In France
  • Corsica
  • Greece
  • Crete
  • Dodecanese
  • North Aegean islands
  • Hungary
  • Iran
  • Italy
  • Sardinia
  • Sicily
  • Lebanon
  • Morocco
  • Portugal
  • Madeira
  • Romania
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Slovakia
  • Spain
  • Balearic Islands
  • Canary Islands
  • Sudan
  • Syria
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey
  • East Thrace
  • North Aegean islands
  • Ukraine
  • Crimea
  • former Yugoslavia

Introduced distribution

  • In Australia
  • South Australia
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • Belgium
  • In Canada
  • Ontario
  • France
  • Germany
  • Great Britain
  • Western Himalaya
  • Ireland
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Pakistan
  • Poland
  • In South Africa
  • Cape Provinces
  • Free State
  • Switzerland
  • Uruguay
  • In the United States:

Uses

In western Crete, Greece a local variety called gourounaki (γουρουνάκι - little pig) has its leaves eaten boiled by the locals.[9] A south Italian variety of the species is also traditionally consumed by ethnic Albanians (Arbëreshë people) in the Vulture area (southern Italy). In the Arbëreshë communities in Lucania the young whorls of Centaurea calcitrapa are boiled and fried in mixtures with other weedy non cultivated greens.[10]

Control
Herbicides

Picloram + 2,4-D, low volatile ester 2,4-D, Dicamba, and Fluroxypyr + Aminopyralid are recommended for use in New South Wales,[11] and aminocyclopyrachlor + chlorsulfuron, aminopyralid, chlorsulfuron, clopyralid, clopyralid + 2,4-D, dicamba, diflufenzopyr + dicamba, picloram, and triclopyr + clopyralid for the Pacific Northwest of North America.[12]
Herbicide resistance

Picloram + 2,4-D, low volatile ester 2,4-D, Dicamba, and Fluroxypyr + Aminopyralid all carry a "moderate" risk of producing resistance in C. calcitrapa.[11]

Similar species

Centaurea aspera, known as rough star-thistle. The main difference is the bract appendages are palmately arranged.
Centaurea solstitialis, known as yellow star thistle. Differs in having yellow flowers palmately arranged, spiny bract appendages, with middle spine only 1 to 2 cm.

References

BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
"Centaurea calcitrapa". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 24 July 2012.
"Centaurea genus part 1". California Department of Food and Agriculture. Archived from the original on 12 December 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
"University of California Cooperative Extension". Ucce.ucdavis.edu. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
Pitcairn, Michael J.; Young, James A.; Clements, Charlie D.; Balciunas, JOE (2002). "Purple Starthistle (Centaurea calcitrapa) Seed Germination1". Weed Technology. 16 (2): 452. doi:10.1614/0890-037X(2002)016[0452:PSCCSG]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0890-037X.
"Jepson Manual Treatment". Ucjeps.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
Rose, Francis (1981). The Wild Flower Key. Frederick Warne & Co. pp. 386–387. ISBN 0-7232-2419-6.
"Centaurea calcitrapa L. - Plants of the World Online". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
Κλεόνικος Γ. Σταυριδάκης [Kleonikos G. Stavridakis] (2006). Η Άγρια βρώσιμη χλωρίδα της Κρήτης [Wild edible plants of Crete]. Rethymnon Crete. ISBN 960-631-179-1.
A. Pieroni, V. Janiak, C. M. Dürr, S. Lüdeke, E. Trachsel and M. Heinrich: In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Non-cultivated Vegetables of Ethnic Albanians in Southern Italy, Centre for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, The School of Pharmacy, University of London 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK; PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, 16, 467–473 (2002) Archived July 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
"Star thistle (Centaurea calcitrapa)". NSW WeedWise, Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales, Australia. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
"Starthistle, yellow (Centaurea solstitialis), purple (Centaurea calcitrapa), and Iberian (Centaurea iberica)". Pacific Northwest Pest Management Handbooks. Pacific Northwest Extension (Oregon, Washington, Idaho). 2015-11-10. Retrieved 2021-03-03.

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