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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Arecales

Familia: Arecaceae
Subfamilia: Ceroxyloideae
Tribus: CeroxyleaeCyclospatheae – Phytelepheae
Tribus: Ceroxyleae - Cyclospatheae -

Name

Ceroxyloideae Drude Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 35: 632. (1877)

Type genus: Ceroxylon Bonpl. ex DC., Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 3: 239 (1804)

References

Drude, C.G.O. 1877. Botanische Zeitung (Berlin) 35: 632. BHL
Asmussen, C.B., Dransfield, J., Deickmann, V., Barford, A.S., Pintaud, J.-C. & Baker, W.J. 2006. A new subfamily classification of the palm family (Arecaceae): evidence from plastid DNA phylogeny. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 151: 15–38. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2006.00521.x PDF. Reference page.
Dransfield, J., Uhl, N.W., Asmussen, C.B., Baker, W.J., Harley, M.M. & Lewis, C.E. 2005. A New Phylogenetic Classification of the Palm Family, Arecaceae. Kew Bulletin 60 (4): 559–569. JSTOR Stable PDF. Reference page.
Dransfield, J., Uhl, N.W., Asmussen, C.B., Baker, W.J., Harley, M.M. & Lewis, C.E. 2008. Genera palmarum: The Evolution and Classification of Palms. Kew Publishing: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 9781842461822 Reference page.
Trénel, P., Gustafsson, M. H., Baker, W. J., Asmussen-Lange, C. B., Dransfield, J., & Borchsenius, F. 2007. Mid-Tertiary dispersal, not Gondwanan vicariance explains distribution patterns in the wax palm subfamily (Ceroxyloideae: Arecaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45(1), 272-288. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2007.03.018 Full text PDF from ResearchGate
Tropicos.org 2015. Ceroxyloideae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2015 Oct. 5.

Vernacular names
English: Wax Palms
magyar: Viaszpálmaformák

The Ceroxyloideae are a subfamily of flowering plants in the palm family found mainly in the Americas with an outlying genus in each of Australia, Madagascar, and the Comoros. Recently revised, the former subfamily Phytelephantoideae was reduced to the tribal level and included, while the Hyophorbeae tribe was reassigned to Arecoideae; it now contains eight genera.[2][3]

Description

From small to moderate to the tallest in the family, the trunks may be solitary or clustering and lack armament. The reduplicate leaf is regularly or irregularly pinnate, bifid, or entire with pinnate ribs; crownshafts are present in some members and absent in others. Monoecious, dioecious, and hermaphroditic palms occur in the group; a protective prophyll accompanies the inflorescence, and all feature peduncular bracts. Any unisexual flowers are slightly dimorphic, solitary, or in rows; all have syncarpous, triovulate gynoecium.[4][5][3]
Tribes
Ceroxyleae

Four widely spread genera occur in South America, Australia, and Madagascar, characterized by tall, rarely slender, trunks which lack crownshafts. The flowers are early-opening, solitary, spirally or subdistichously arranged, with small bracts.

Image Genus Species
Palma de cera del Quindío (Ceroxylon quindiuense) (14725549921).jpg Ceroxylon Bonpl. ex DC.
  • Ceroxylon alpinum Bonpl. ex DC. - Colombia, Venezuela
  • Ceroxylon amazonicum Galeano - Ecuador
  • Ceroxylon ceriferum (H.Karst.) Pittier - Colombia, Venezuela
  • Ceroxylon echinulatum Galeano - Ecuador, Peru
  • Ceroxylon parvifrons (Engel) H.Wendl. - Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia
  • Ceroxylon parvum Galeano - Ecuador
  • Ceroxylon peruvianum Galeano, Sanín & K.Mejia - Peru
  • Ceroxylon pityrophyllum (Mart.) Mart. ex H.Wendl. - Peru, Bolivia
  • Ceroxylon quindiuense (H.Karst.) H.Wendl. - Colombia, Peru
  • Ceroxylon sasaimae Galeano - Antioquia, Cundinamarca
  • Ceroxylon ventricosum Burret - Colombia, Ecuador
  • Ceroxylon vogelianum (Engel) H.Wendl. - Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru
Chontas cultivadas-1.jpg Juania Drude
  • Juania australis, the Chonta palm
Oraniopsis appendiculata (tanetahi) 002.jpg Oraniopsis (Becc.) J. Dransf. A.K.Irvine & N.W.Uhl
  • Oraniopsis appendiculata
Ravenea madagascariensis kz1.JPG Ravenea C.D.Bouché
  • Ravenea albicans (Jum.) Beentje
  • Ravenea beentjei Rakotoarin. & J.Dransf
  • Ravenea delicatula Rakotoarin.
  • Ravenea dransfieldii Beentje
  • Ravenea glauca Jum. & H.Perrier
  • Ravenea hildebrandtii H.Wendl. ex Bouché
  • Ravenea hypoleuca Rakotoarin. & J.Dransf.
  • Ravenea julietiae Beentje
  • Ravenea krociana Beentje
  • Ravenea lakatra (Jum.) Beentje
  • Ravenea latisecta Jum.
  • Ravenea louvelii Beentje
  • Ravenea madagascariensis Becc.
  • Ravenea moorei J.Dransf. & N.W.Uhl
  • Ravenea musicalis Beentje
  • Ravenea nana Beentje
  • Ravenea rivularis Jum. & H.Perrier
  • Ravenea robustior Jum. & H.Perrier
  • Ravenea sambiranensis Jum. & H.Perrier
  • Ravenea xerophila Jum.

Cyclospatheae

A monotypic tribe from North and Central America, they have moderately sized, erect trunks, with crownshafts. The flowers are solitary, spirally arranged, hermaphroditic, and borne in the axils of small bracts.

Image Genus Species
Pseudophoenix sargentii Fairchild.jpg Pseudophoenix H.Wendl. ex Sarg.
  • Pseudophoenix ekmanii
  • Pseudophoenix lediniana
  • Pseudophoenix sargentii
  • Pseudophoenix vinifera

Phytelepheae

Three dioecious South American palms, with moderate to large, acaulescent or erect trunks, their staminate inflorescences are spike-like, while the pistillate are branched and spreading. The fruit is usually borne in dense clusters, each containing five to 10 seeds.

Image Genus Species
Ammandra O.F.Cook
  • Ammandra decasperma
Aphandra Barfod
  • Aphandra natalia
TaguaPalm.JPG Phytelephas Ruiz & Pav.
  • Phytelephas aequatorialis Spruce – Ecuadorean ivory palm - Ecuador
  • Phytelephas macrocarpa Ruiz & Pav. – Large-fruited ivory palm - northwestern Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia
  • Phytelephas olsonii R.W. Brown
  • Phytelephas schottii H.Wendl.Colombia ivory palm - Colombia
  • Phytelephas seemannii O.F.Cook - Colombia, Panama
  • Phytelephas tenuicaulis (Barfod) A.J.Hend. - Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
  • Phytelephas tumacana O.F.Cook - Nariño Department of Colombia

References

Dowe, John Leslie (2010). Australian Palms: Biogeography, Ecology and Systematics. CSIRO Publishing. p. 159. ISBN 0643096159.
Dransfield, John; Uhl, Natalie W.; Asmussen, Conny B.; Baker, William J.; Harley, Madeline M.; Lewis, Carl E. (2005). "A new phylogenetic classification of the palm family, Arecaceae". Kew Bulletin. 60: 559–569 – via ResearchGate.
Dransfield, John; Uhl, Natalie W.; Asmussen, Conny B.; Baker, William J.; Harley, Madeline M.; Lewis, Carl E. (2008). Genera Palmarum - The Evolution and Classification of Palms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 9781842461822.
Riffle, Robert L. and Craft, Paul (2003) An Encyclopedia of Cultivated Palms. Portland: Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-558-6 / ISBN 978-0-88192-558-6
Uhl, Natalie W. and Dransfield, John (1987) Genera Palmarum - A classification of palms based on the work of Harold E. Moore. Lawrence, Kansas: Allen Press. ISBN 0-935868-30-5 / ISBN 978-0-935868-30-2

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