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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Oleaceae
Tribus: Oleeae
Subtribus: Oleinae
Genus: Chionanthus
Species: C. acunae – C. adamsii – C. africanus – C. albidiflorus – C. amblirrhinus – C. avilensis – C. axillaris – C. axilliflorus – C. ayresii – C. bakeri – C. balgooyana – C. battiscombei – C. beccarii – C. boutonii – C. brachystachys – C. brachythyrsus – C. brassii – C. broomeanush – C. broomeanus – C. bumelioides – C. calcicola – C. callophylloides – C. callophyllus – C. camptoneurus – C. caudifolius – C. caymanensis – C. celebicus – C. clementis – C. colonchensis – C. compactus – C. cordifolius – C. cordulatus – C. coriaceus – C. crassifolius – C. crispus – C. curvicarpus – C. cuspidatus – C. decipiens – C. densiflorus – C. dictyophyllus – C. diversifolius – C. domingensis – C. dussii – C. ellipticus – C. enerve – C. eriorachis – C. evenius – C. ferrugineus – C. filiformis – C. fluminensis – C. foveolatus – C. gigantifolius – C. gigas – C. globosus – C. glomeratus – C. grandifolius – C. greenii – C. guangxiensis – C. guianensis – C. hahlii – C. hainanensis – C. havilandii – C. henryae – C. henryanus – C. holdridgei – C. implicatus – C. incurvifolius – C. insularis – C. jamaicensis – C. kajewskii – C. kinabaluensis – C. lancifolius – C. leopoldii – C. ligustrinus – C. littoreus – C. longiflorus – C. longipetalus – C. lucens – C. luzonicus – C. macrobotrys – C. macrocarpus – C. macrothyrsus – C. mala-elengi – C. mannii – C. maxwellii – C. micranthus – C. microbotrys – C. microstigma – C. mildbraedii – C. minutiflorus – C. montanus – C. niloticus – C. nitens – C. nitidus – C. oblanceolatus – C. oblongifolius – C. obtusifolius – C. oliganthus – C. pachyphyllus – C. palustris – C. panamensis – C. parkinsonii – C. pedunculatus – C. peglerae – C. plurifloroides – C. pluriflorus – C. polycephalus – C. polygamus – C. porcatus – C. proctorii – C. pubescens – C. pubicalyx – C. purpureus – C. pygmaeus – C. quadristamineus – C. ramiflorus – C. remotinervius – C. retusus – C. richardsiae – C. riparius – C. rostratus – C. rugosus – C. rupicola – C. sabahensis – C. salicifolius – C. sessiliflorus – C. sleumeri – C. spicatus – C. spiciferus – C. stenurus – C. subsessilis – C. sumatranus – C. sutepensis – C. tenuis – C. thorelii – C. timorensis – C. trichotomus – C. tropophyllus – C. urbanii – C. velutinus – C. verruculatus – C. verticillatus – C. virginicus – C. vitiensis – C. wurdackii – C. zeylanicus – C. zollingerianus
Source(s) of checklist:

Govaerts, R. et al. 2015. Chionanthus in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2015 Mar 01. Reference page.

Name

Chionanthus L. (1753)

Type species: Chionanthus virginicus L.

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Mayepea Aubl., nom. rej.
Ceranthus Schreb., nom. rej.
Thouinia Thunb. ex L.f., Suppl. Pl.: 9, 89 (1781) [1782], nom. rej. – non Thouinia Poit., Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 3: 70 (1804), nom. et typ. cons.
Linociera Schreb., nom. cons.
Chionanthus sect. Linociera (Schreb.) F.Muell.

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 8. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Chionanthus in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Sept. 01. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Chionanthus. Published online. Accessed: Sept. 1 2021.

Chionanthus /ˌkaɪoʊˈnænθəs/, common name: fringetrees, is a genus of about 150 species of flowering plants in the family Oleaceae.
Chionanthus virginicus flowers
Chionanthus pubescens
Chionanthus retusus flowers

The genus has a wide distribution primarily in the tropics and subtropics, but with three species extending north into temperate regions, one (C. retusus) in eastern Asia and two (C. virginicus and C. henryae) in eastern North America.[1][2] Most of the tropical species are evergreen, while the three temperate species are deciduous. Some botanists restrict Chionanthus to the deciduous, temperate species, treating the evergreen species in a separate genus Linociera, but apart from leaf persistence, there is no other consistent difference between them.

They are shrubs and small to medium-sized trees growing to 3–25 m tall. The leaves are opposite, simple. The flowers are produced in feathery panicles, with a corolla subdivided into four slender lobes; they are white, pale yellow, or tinged pink. The fruit is a drupe containing a single seed.[2]

Species

The following species are accepted by[1]

Chionanthus acunae (Borhidi & O.Muñiz) Borhidi - Cuba
Chionanthus adamsii Stearn - Jamaica
Chionanthus africanus (Knobl.) Stearn - tropical Africa
Chionanthus albidiflorus Thwaites – Sri Lanka
Chionanthus amblirrhinus P.S.Green - Thailand
Chionanthus avilensis (Steyerm.) P.S.Green - Venezuela
Chionanthus axillaris R.Br. – Australia (Queensland)
Chionanthus axilliflorus (Griseb.) Stearn – Caribbean
Chionanthus ayresii A.J.Scott - Mauritius
Chionanthus bakeri (Urb.) Stearn - Cuba
Chionanthus balgooyana Kiew – Sarawak
Chionanthus battiscombei (Hutch.) Stearn - eastern + southern Africa
Chionanthus beccarii (Stapf) Kiew - Sumatra
Chionanthus boutonii A.J.Scott - Mauritius
Chionanthus brachystachys (Schltr.) P.S.Green - New Caledonia
Chionanthus brachythyrsus (Merrill) P.S.Green – Southern China (Hainan), Vietnam
Chionanthus brassii (Kobuski) Kiew - Papua New Guinea
Chionanthus broomeanus (Horne ex Oliv.) A.J.Scott – Réunion + Mauritius
Chionanthus bumelioides (Griseb.) Stearn - Bahamas, Cuba, Hispaniola
Chionanthus calcicola (Kerr) Kiew - Malaysia + Thailand
Chionanthus callophylloides Kiew – Sarawak + Sabah
Chionanthus callophyllus Blume – Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo
Chionanthus camptoneurus (Gilg & G.Schellenb.) Stearn - Cameroon + Gabon
Chionanthus caudifolius (Ridl.) Kiew - Peninsular Malaysia
Chionanthus caymanensis Stearn - Cayman Islands
Chionanthus celebicus Koord - Sulawesi
Chionanthus clementis (Quisumb. & Merr.) Kiew - Philippines
Chionanthus colonchensis Cornejo & Bonifaz - Ecuador
Chionanthus compactus Sw. – Caribbean
Chionanthus cordifolius Labat, Marc Pignal & O.Pascal - Comoros
Chionanthus cordulatus Koord. –, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines
Chionanthus coriaceus (S.Vidal) Yuen P.Yang & S.Y.Lu - Taiwan + Philippines
Chionanthus crassifolius (Mart.) P.S.Green - Brazil
Chionanthus crispus Kiew – Sabah
Chionanthus curvicarpus Kiew –, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines
Chionanthus cuspidatus Blume - Borneo
Chionanthus decipiens P.S.Green - Myanmar + Thailand
Chionanthus densiflorus Zoll. & Moritzi - Java
Chionanthus dictyophyllus (Urb.) Stearn - Hispaniola
Chionanthus diversifolius Miq - Sumatra
Chionanthus domingensis Lam. – Caribbean
Chionanthus dussii (Krug & Urb.) Stearn - Dominica + Martinique
Chionanthus ellipticus Blume - Java + Sumatra
Chionanthus enerve (Steenis) Kiew - Borneo
Chionanthus eriorachis (Kerr) P.S.Green - Thailand
Chionanthus evenius (Stapf) Kiew – Malesia
Chionanthus ferrugineus (Gilg) P.S.Green - Brazil
Chionanthus filiformis (Vell.) P.S.Green - Brazil
Chionanthus fluminensis (Miers) P.S.Green - Brazil
Chionanthus foveolatus (E.Mey.) Stearn (Pock ironwood) – Southern Africa
Chionanthus gigantifolius Koord - Sulawesi
Chionanthus gigas (Lingelsh.) Kiew - New Guinea
Chionanthus globosus (Kiew) Kiew – Borneo
Chionanthus glomeratus Blume - Sumatra
Chionanthus grandifolius (Elmer) Kiew - Philippines
Chionanthus greenii Lombardi - Brazil
Chionanthus guangxiensis B.M.Miao. – Southeastern China (Guangxi).
Chionanthus guianensis (Aubl.) Pers - Venezuela + French Guiana
Chionanthus hahlii (Rech.) Kiew - Bismarck, Solomons, Samoa
Chionanthus hainanensis (Merrill & Chun) B.M.Miao. – Southern China (Hainan)
Chionanthus havilandii Kiew – Borneo
Chionanthus henryae H.L.Li - USA (Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas)
Chionanthus henryanus P.S.Green. – Southwestern China, Burma
Chionanthus holdridgei (Camp & Monachino) Stearn – Caribbean
Chionanthus implicatus (Rusby) P.S.Green - South America
Chionanthus intermedius (Wight) F.Muell. – India
Chionanthus insularis Labat - Comoros
Chionanthus jamaicensis (Urb.) Stearn - Jamaica
Chionanthus kinabaluensis Kiew – Borneo
Chionanthus kajewskii (Sleumer) Kiew - Solomon Islands
Chionanthus lancifolius (Ridl.) Kiew - Peninsular Malaysia
Chionanthus leopoldii Kiew – Borneo
Chionanthus ligustrinus (Sw.) Pers. – Caribbean
Chionanthus littoreus Miq - Sumatra
Chionanthus longiflorus (H.L.Li) B.M.Miao. – Southwestern China (Yunnan)
Chionanthus longipetalus (Merr.) Kiew - Sabah, Sarawak
Chionanthus lucens Kiew – Sabah
Chionanthus luzonicus Blume - Philippines
Chionanthus macrobotrys (Merr.) Kiew - Sabah, Sarawak
Chionanthus macrocarpus Blume –, Indonesia, Malaysia
Chionanthus macrothyrsus (Merr.) Soejarto & P.K.Lôc - Vietnam
Chionanthus mala-elengi (Dennst.) P.S.Green - India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Burma, Cambodia, Peninsular Malaysia, Andaman Islands
Chionanthus mannii (Soler.) Stearn - western + central Africa
Chionanthus maxwellii P.S.Green - Thailand
Chionanthus micranthus (Mart.) Lozano & Fuertes - Brazil
Chionanthus microbotrys (Kerr) P.S.Green - Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
Chionanthus microstigma (Gagnep.) P.S.Green - Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
Chionanthus mildbraedii (Gilg & G.Schellenb.) Stearn - central Africa
Chionanthus minutiflorus Kurz - Burma
Chionanthus montanus Blume - Java, Sulawesi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Chionanthus niloticus (Oliv.) Stearn - tropical Africa
Chionanthus nitens Koord. & Valeton - Java, Sulawesi
Chionanthus nitidus (Merr.) Kiew - Philippines
Chionanthus oblanceolatus (B.L.Rob.) P.S.Green - Mexico + Central America
Chionanthus oblongifolius Koord. & Valeton - Java
Chionanthus obtusifolius (Lam.) Stearn - Madagascar
Chionanthus oliganthus (Merr.) Kiew - Sabah, Sarawak
Chionanthus pachyphyllus (Merr.) Kiew – Borneo
Chionanthus palustris Kiew – Borneo
Chionanthus panamensis (Standl.) Stearn - Mexico, Central America
Chionanthus parkinsonii (Hutch.) Bennet & Raizada - Thailand, Vietnam, Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Chionanthus pedunculatus P.S.Green - New Caledonia
Chionanthus peglerae (C.H.Wright) Stearn - South Africa (Natal + Cape Province)
Chionanthus picrophloia F.Muell. – Australia (Queensland)
Chionanthus plurifloroides Kiew – Borneo
Chionanthus pluriflorus (Knobl.) Kiew – Borneo
Chionanthus polycephalus Kiew – Borneo
Chionanthus polygamus (Roxb.) Kiew –, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Guinea
Chionanthus porcatus Kiew – Borneo
Chionanthus proctorii Stearn - Jamaica
Chionanthus pubescens Kunth. – Ecuador, Peru
Chionanthus pubicalyx (Ridl.) Kiew – Borneo
Chionanthus purpureus Lam. - Sri Lanka
Chionanthus pygmaeus Small (Pygmy fringetree) – Southeastern United States (Florida)
Chionanthus quadristamineus F.Muell. – Australia (Lord Howe Island endemic)
Chionanthus ramiflorus Roxburgh – Australia (Queensland), southern China, India, Nepal, Vietnam
Chionanthus remotinervius (Merr.) Kiew - Philippines
Chionanthus retusus Lindley & Paxton (Chinese fringetree) – China, Japan, Korea
Chionanthus richardsiae Stearn - Zambia
Chionanthus riparius (Lingelsh.) Kiew - New Guinea
Chionanthus rostratus (Teijsm. & Binn.) Miq. - Java
Chionanthus rugosus Kiew – Borneo
Chionanthus rupicola (Lingelsh.) Kiew -, Indonesia, New Guinea
Chionanthus sabahensis Kiew – Sabah
Chionanthus salicifolius (Lingelsh.) Kiew - New Guinea
Chionanthus sessiliflorus (Hemsl.) Kiew - New Guinea + Solomon Islands
Chionanthus sleumeri (C.T.White) Stearn – Australia (Queensland)
Chionanthus spicatus Blume – Borneo
Chionanthus spiciferus (Ridl.) Kiew - Peninsular Malaysia
Chionanthus stenurus (Merr.) Kiew - Sulawesi
Chionanthus subsessilis (Eichler) P.S.Green - Brazil
Chionanthus sumatranus Blume - Sumatra + Andaman Islands
Chionanthus sutepensis (Kerr) P.S.Green - Thailand
Chionanthus tenuis P.S.Green - Brazil
Chionanthus thorelii (Gagnep.) P.S.Green - Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
Chionanthus timorensis Blume - Timor
Chionanthus trichotomus (Vell.) P.S.Green - Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay
Chionanthus tropophyllus (H.Perrier) Stearn - Madagascar
Chionanthus urbanii (Knobl.) Stearn - Hispaniola
Chionanthus velutinus (Kerr) P.S.Green - Thailand
Chionanthus verruculatus D.Fang - China (Guangxi)
Chionanthus verticillatus (Gagnep.) Soejarto & P.K.Lôc - Vietnam
Chionanthus virginicus L. (White fringetree) – Eastern United States (Texas to Florida to Massachusetts to Missouri)
Chionanthus vitiensis (Seem.) A.C.Sm. - Niue, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga
Chionanthus wurdackii B.Ståhl - Peru
Chionanthus zeylanicus L. - Sri Lanka, southern India
Chionanthus zollingerianus Koord. & Valeton - Java

References

Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, genus Chionanthus

Flora of China v 15 p 293, genus Chionanthus

Cited works

Chang, Mei-chen; Chiu, Lien-ching; Wei, Zhi; Green, Peter S. (2008) [1992]. Wu, Z. Y.; Raven, P. H. (eds.). "Oleaceae; Chionanthus". Flora of China. Online version (print version). eFloras.org. Beijing and St. Louis, MO: Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Retrieved 26 June 2013.

Green, P. S. (1994). "Chionanthus". In Wilson, A. J. G. (ed.). Flora of Australia: Volume 49: Oceanic Islands 1: Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island (online version). Flora of Australia series. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study. p. 329. ISBN 978-0-644-29385-3. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
F.A.Zich; B.P.M.Hyland; T.Whiffen; R.A.Kerrigan (2020). "Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants Home". Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants Edition 8 (RFK8). Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research (CANBR), Australian Government. Retrieved 21 June 2021.

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