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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Malvales

Familia: Cistaceae
Genus: Cistus
Subgenera: C. subg. Cistus – C. subg. Halimioides – C. subg. Leucocistus

Species: C. albidus – C. asper – C. chinamadensis – C. clusii – C. creticus– C. crispus – C. grancanariae – C. heterophyllus – C. horrens – C. inflatus – C. ladanifer – C. laurifolius – C. libanotis – C. monspeliensis – C. munbyi – C. ocreatus – C. osbeckiifolius – C. palmensis – C. parviflorus – C. populifolius – C. pouzolzii – C. salviifolius – C. sintenisii – C. symphytifoliusC. creticus - C. crispus - C. heterophyllus - C. ladanifer - C. laurifolius - C. libanotis - C. monspeliensis - C. munbyi - C. ochreatus - C. osbeckiifolius - C. parviflorus - C. populifolius - C. psilosepalus -

Nothospecies: C. × aguilari – C. × akamantis – C. × argenteus – C. × banaresii – C. × bornetianus – C. × canescens – C. × cebennensis – C. × chnoodophyllus – C. × clausonii – C. × conradiae – C. × crispatus – C. × crumleyae – C. × curvativus – C. × cymosus – C. × cyprius – C. × dansereaui – C. × daveauanus – C. × dubius – C. × escartianus – C. × fernandesiae – C. × florentinus – C. × gardianus – C. × glaucifolius – C. × heterocalyx – C. × hetieri – C. × hybridus – C. × incanus – C. × latipes – C. × laxus – C. × lecomtei – C. × ledon – C. × leiophyllus – C. × lenis – C. × lepidocalyx – C. × lucasii – C. × matritensis – C. × mesoensis – C. × mictocymosus – C. × neyrautii – C. × nigricans – C. × oblongifolius – C. × obtusifolius – C. × olivaceus – C. × oxyphyllus – C. × pagei – C. × pauranthus – C. × penarcleusensis – C. × picardianus – C. × platysepalus – C. × porphyreus – C. × purpureus – C. × ralletii – C. × reghaiensis – C. × rodiaei – C. × sammonsii – C. × skanbergii – C. × stenophyllus – C. × strigosus – C. × tephreus – C. × timbalii – C. × ultraviolaceus – C. × verguinii

Nothosectiones intersubgenericales: C. nothosect. Ledostus – C. nothosect. Lemioides – C. nothosect. Macronia

Nothospecies intersubgenericales: C. × argenteus – C. × bornetianus – C. × curvativus – C. × fernandesiae – C. × matritensis – C. × purpureus – C. × reghaiensis – C. × rodiaei – C. × sammonsii

Unresolved name: C. capensis

Name

Cistus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 523 (1753); Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 234 (1754).

Lectotype species: Cistus crispus L., designated by M. L. Green (1929: 162)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Anthelis Raf., Chlor. Aetn. 9 (1813), nom. inval., nom. nud.
Type species: non design.
Ladanium Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 2, 6: 366 (1836).
Type species: Ladanium officinarum Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 2, 6: 367 (1836).
Ladanum Raf., Sylva Tellur. 131 (1838).
Type species: L. verum Raf., nom. illeg.
Ledonia (Dunal) Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 2, 6: 369 (1836).
Type species: Ledonia peduncularis Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 2, 6: 369 (1836), nom. illeg.
Libanotis Raf., Sylva Tellur. 132 (1838), nom. illeg. non J.Hill (1756).
Type species: Libanotis umbellata (L.) Raf., Sylva Tellur. 132 (1838).
Rhodocistus Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 2, 6: 367 (1836).
Type species: R. berthelotianus Spach, nom. illeg.
Stephanocarpus Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 2, 6: 368 (1836).
Type species: S. monspeliensis (L.) Spach
Strobon Raf., Sylva Tellur. 132 (1838).
Type species: Strobon vaginatum (Dryand.) Raf., Sylva Tellur. 132 (1838).

Distribution
Native distribution areas:
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 523. Reference page.
Linnaeus, C. 1754. Genera Plantarum, ed. 5: 234. Reference page.

Additional references

Dansereau, P.M. 1939. Monographie du genre Cistus. Boissiera 4: 1–90. DOI: 10.5169/seals-895396 Open access Reference page.
Daveau, J.A. 1886. Contributions pour l'étude de la flore portugaise. Cistinées. Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana (1 sér.) 4: 15–80. BibDigital Reference page.
Demoly, J.-P., Marrero Gómez, M.V. & Bañares Baudet, Á. 2006. Contribution à la connaissance des cistes de la section Macrostylia Willk. (Cistus L., Cistaceae). Journal de Botanique de la Société Botanique de France 36: 13–38. Reference page.
Demoly, J.-P. & Montserrat, P. 1993. Cistus. In: Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.). Flora Ibérica, Plantas Vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares, Vol. III. Plumbaginaceae (partim) – Capparaceae. Real Jardín Botánico, C.S.I.C., Madrid, ISBN 84-00-07375-4, pp. 319–337 (PDF). Reference page.
Demoly, J.-P. 2006. Les hybrides ternaires du genre Cistus L. (Cistaceae). Biocosme Mésogéen 23(1): 1–15. Reference page.
Dunal, M.F. 1824. Ordo XV. Cistineae. Pp. 263–286 in De Candolle, A.P., Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis, sive enumeratio contracta ordinum generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta. Pars 1: Sistens Thalamiflorarum ordines LIV. VI+746 pp., Treuttel & Würtz, Paris. BHL Reference page.
Hitchcock, A.S. & Green, M.L. 1929. Standard species of Linnaean genera of Phanerogamae (1753–1754). pp. 111–195 in International Botanical Congress. Cambridge (England), 1930. Nomenclature. Proposals by British Botanists. His Majesty's Stationery Office, London. Biblioteca Digital Reference page.
Grosser, W. 1903. Cistaceae. In Engler, H.G.A. (ed.), Das Pflanzenreich. IV.193 (Heft 14): 161 pp. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig. BHL Reference page. (!10–32). BHL
Guzmán, B. & Vargas, P. 2009. Historical biogeography and character evolution of Cistaceae (Malvales) based on analysis of plastid rbcL and trnL-trnF sequences. Organisms Diversity & Evolution 9(2): 83–99. DOI: 10.1016/j.ode.2009.01.001 Open access Reference page.
Martín Bolaños, M. & Guinea, E. 1949. Jarales y Jaras (Cistografía Hispanica). Boletín. Instituto Forestal de Investigaciones y Experiencias 20(49): 1–228. BibDigital. Reference page.
Spach, É. 1836. Organographie des Cistacées. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique, sér. 2, 6: 257–272, pl. 16, 17. BHL Reference page.
Spach, É. 1836. Conspectus Monographiae Cistacearum. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique, sér. 2, 6: 357–375. BHL Reference page.
Sweet, R. 1825–1830. Cistineae. The natural order of cistus, or rock-rose. J. Ridgway, London, DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.20402. Reference page.
Warburg, O.E. & Warburg, E.F. 1930. A Preliminary Study of the Genus Cistus. Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society 55(1): 1–52. Reference page.

Links

Hassler, M. 2018. Cistus. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Sep. 03. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Cistus. Published online. Accessed: Sep. 3 2018.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Cistus in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2018 Sep. 3. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2018. Cistus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 3 Sep. 2018.

Vernacular names

العربية: قريضة
azərbaycanca: Buxurkolu
تۆرکجه: لادن
български: Лавдан
corsu: Muchju
čeština: Cist
dansk: Soløjetræ
Deutsch: Zistrosen
English: Rockrose
Esperanto: Cisto
español: Estepa
euskara: Estrepa
فارسی: گل آفتابی
suomi: Kistukset
français: Ciste
עברית: לוטם
magyar: Szuhar
italiano: Cisto
日本語: ゴジアオイ属
ქართული: საკმელა
മലയാളം: സിസ്റ്റസ്
polski: Czystek
português: Esteva
русский: Ладанник
sardu: Mudeju
Türkçe: Laden

Cistus (from the Greek kistos) is a genus of flowering plants in the rockrose family Cistaceae, containing about 20 species (Ellul et al. 2002). They are perennial shrubs found on dry or rocky soils throughout the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal through to the Middle East, and also on the Canary Islands.

Cistus, with its many hybrids and cultivars, is commonly encountered as a garden flower.

The common name rockrose (rock rose in the UK) is applied to the species, a name also shared by the related genera Halimium, Helianthemum and Tuberaria, all in the family Cistaceae. The common name gum cistus is applied to resin-bearing species, especially C. ladanifer.
Contents

1 Description
2 Taxonomy
2.1 Phylogeny
2.2 Species
2.3 Gallery
2.4 Hybrids
3 Ecology
4 Cultivation
4.1 Cultivars
4.2 Gallery
5 References
6 Bibliography
7 External links

Description
Evergreen leaves of a Cistus species (Cistus monspeliensis)

The leaves are evergreen, opposite, simple, usually slightly rough-surfaced, 2–8 cm long. In a few species (notably C. ladanifer), the leaves are coated with a highly aromatic resin called labdanum.

They have showy 5-petaled flowers ranging from white to purple and dark pink, in a few species with a conspicuous dark red spot at the base of each petal.
Taxonomy
Phylogeny

Cistus and Halimium form a cohesive and the most derived clade within Cistaceae.[1] Molecular phylogenetic analyses conducted between 2005 and 2011 confirm that Cistus species divide into two well-defined clades, neither of which was fully resolved internally. The first clade consists of those with purple and pink flowers (the "purple pink clade" or PPC). The second clade consists of those with white flowers or, in the case of Cistus parviflorus, pale pink flowers (the "white or whitish pink clade" or WWPC).[1][2][3][4] Although the flower colour of C. parviflorus is anomalous, it has very short styles, otherwise characteristic of WWPC species. A hybrid origin has been suggested.[2] A simplified cladogram is shown below:[5]
Species-level cladogram of Cistus species.

Halimium spp.



PPC

Cistus crispus



Cistus asper

Cistus chinamadensis

Cistus horrens

Cistus ocreatus

Cistus osbeckiifolius

Cistus palmensis

Cistus symphytifolius



Cistus heterophyllus


Cistus albidus

Cistus creticus






Halimium spp.


WWPC

Cistus clusii

Cistus munbyi



Cistus inflatus

Cistus ladanifer

Cistus laurifolius

Cistus libanotis

Cistus monspeliensis

Cistus parviflorus

Cistus populifolius

Cistus pouzolzii

Cistus salviifolius

Cistus sintenisii





Purple
Pink
Clade
White
Whitish Pink
Clade
Species-level cladogram of Cistus species, based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences.[2][1][3][4]

Within the purple pink clade (PPC), C. crispus is consistently the first diverging species. C. albidus, C. creticus and C. heterophyllus form a well supported clade. Seven species endemic to the Canary Islands form a polytomy, resolved differently in different analyses, in which subtaxa of some species do not always cluster together. Within the white and whitish pink clade (WWPC), there is weak support for a clade consisting of C. clusii and C. munbyi; the other species either formed part of a polytomy or resolved differently in different analyses. Halimium and Cistus were regularly shown to be paraphyletic with respect to one another.[4]
Species

There are about 25 species in the genus:[4][6]

Cistus albidus L.
Cistus asper Demoly & R.Mesa
Cistus chinamadensis Bañares & P.Romero
Cistus clusii Dunal
Cistus creticus L.
Cistus crispus L.
Cistus grancanariae Marrero Rodr., R.S.Almeida & C.Ríos
Cistus heterophyllus Desf.
Cistus horrens Demoly
Cistus inflatus Pourr. ex J.-P.Demoly, syn. Cistus psilosepalus Sweet[4]
Cistus ladanifer L., including Cistus palhinhae N.D.Ingram – Gum Rockrose
Cistus laurifolius L.
Cistus libanotis L.
Cistus monspeliensis L. – Montpellier Cistus
Cistus munbyi Pomel
Cistus ocreatus C.Sm.[4]
Cistus osbeckiifolius Webb
Cistus palmensis Bañares & Demoly
Cistus parviflorus Lam.
Cistus populifolius L.
Cistus pouzolzii Delile ex Gren. & Godr.
Cistus salviifolius L. – Salvia Cistus
Cistus sintenisii Litard. (syn. C. albanicus)
Cistus symphytifolius Lam.


Hybrids

In addition a large number of hybrids have been recorded, including:[6]

Cistus × aguilari O.E.Warb. (C. ladanifer × C. populifolius[7])
Cistus × akamantis Demoly
Cistus × albereensis Gaut. ex Rouy & Fouc.
Cistus × banaresii Demoly
Cistus × cebennensis Aubin & J.Prudhomme
Cistus × clausonii Font Quer & Maire
Cistus × conradiae Demoly
Cistus × corbariensis Pourr. (C. populifolius × C. salviifolius[2])
Cistus × cyprius Lam. (C. ladanifer × C. laurifolius[2])
Cistus × dansereaui P.Silva (C. ladanifer × C. inflatus[8])
Cistus × florentinus Lam. (C. monspeliensis × C. salviifolius[2])
Cistus × incanus L. (C. albidus × C. crispus[2])
Cistus × laxus Aiton (C. populifolius × C. inflatus ?[2])
Cistus × ledon Lam. (C. laurifolius × C. monspeliensis)
Cistus × matritensis Carazo Roman & Jiménez Alb.
Cistus × nigricans Pourr. (C. populifolius × C. monspeliensis[9])
Cistus × novus Rouy
Cistus × obtusifolius Sweet (C. inflatus × C. salviifolius[2])
Cistus × pauranthus Demoly (C. parviflorus × C. salviifolius[10])
Cistus × philothei Sennen & Mauricio
Cistus × platysepalus Sweet (C. monspeliensis × C. inflatus[11])
Cistus × pourretii Rouy & Foucaud
Cistus × purpureus Lam. (C. ladanifer × C. creticus[2])
Cistus × rodiaei Verg. (C. ladanifer × C. albidus)[12]
Cistus × skanbergii Lojac. (C. parviflorus × C. monspeliensis[13])
Cistus × stenophyllus Link (C. ladanifer × C. monspeliensis[14])
Cistus × verguinii Coste (C. ladanifer × C. salviifolius[15])

Ecology

They are thermophilous plants, which require open, sunny places. This plant genus is peculiar in that it has developed a range of specific adaptations to resist summer drought and frequent disturbance events, such as fire and grazing. In addition, it can form both ectomycorrhizas and arbuscular mycorrhizas. More than 200 ectomycorrhiza-forming fungal species belonging to 40 genera have been reported so far to be associated with Cistus.[16] As with many other Cistaceae, the species of Cistus have the ability to form mycorrhizal associations with truffles (Tuber) and are thus able to thrive on poor sandy soils or rocks. Cistus ladanifer has been found to have mycorrhizal associations with Boletus edulis, Boletus rhodoxanthus, and Laccaria laccata.[17]

Cistus are the only host of Cytinus hypocistis, a small parasitic plant that lives on the roots and is noticeable only for a short period of time when in flower. The presence of the parasite does not seem to harm the host population.

Cistus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Coleophora confluella and Coleophora helianthemella, the latter recorded on Cistus monspeliensis.

Various Cistus species are known to emit volatile oils, rendering the plants flammable.
Cultivation

Cistuses are suitable for sunny gardens with a nearly frost-free Mediterranean climate. The hardiest of the species is C. laurifolius, which survived the hard frost at Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew in 1895 that eliminated all the cistuses save this and two white-flowered natural hybrids, C. × corbariensis, already grown by John Tradescant the Elder, and C. × loretii, a 19th-century introduction.[18]
Cultivars

Cultivars (those marked agm have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit) include:

C. × aguilarii 'Maculatus' agm[19]
C. × argenteus 'Peggy Sammons'[20] - pink flowers, grey-green leaves[21]
C. × bornetianus ‘Jester’ agm[22]
C. × cyprius agm[23]
C. × cyprius var. ellipticus 'Elma' agm[24]
C. × dansereaui 'Decumbens' agm[25]
C. × dansereaui 'Jenkyn Place' agm[26]
C. × florentinus - white flowers
C. ’Gordon Cooper’ agm[27]
C. × hybridus - pink buds, white flowers
C. × laxus ‘Snow White’ agm[28]
C. × lenis 'Grayswood Pink' agm[29]
C. × obtusifolius ‘Thrive’ agm[30]
'C. 'Paladin' - large white flowers, dark green leaves
C. × pulverulentus 'Sunset' agm[31]
C. × purpureus agm[32] - pink petals with dark blotches near centre[21]
C. × skanbergii[33] - small pink flowers
C. 'Snow Fire' agm[34]
×Halimiocistus 'Ingwersenii' agm[35]
×Halimiocistus sahucii agm[36]

References

Guzmán, B. & Vargas, P. (2009). "Historical biogeography and character evolution of Cistaceae (Malvales) based on analysis of plastid rbcL and trnL-trnF sequences". Organisms Diversity & Evolution. 9 (2): 83–99. doi:10.1016/j.ode.2009.01.001.
Guzmán, B. & Vargas, P. (2005). "Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Cistus L. (Cistaceae) based on ITS, trnL-trnF, and matK sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (3): 644–660. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.04.026. PMID 16055353.
Guzman, B.; Lledo, M.D. & Vargas, P. (2009). "Adaptive Radiation in Mediterranean Cistus (Cistaceae)". PLOS ONE. 4 (7): e6362. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.6362G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006362. PMC 2719431. PMID 19668338.
Civeyrel, Laure; Leclercq, Julie; Demoly, Jean-Pierre; Agnan, Yannick; Quèbre, Nicolas; Pélissier, Céline & Otto, Thierry (2011). "Molecular systematics, character evolution, and pollen morphology of Cistus and Halimium (Cistaceae)". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 295 (1–4): 23–54. doi:10.1007/s00606-011-0458-7. S2CID 21995828.
Civeyrel et al. (2011). Based on fig. 4.
"Search results for Cistus". The Plant List. Retrieved 2015-02-28.
Cistus × aguilari Archived 2015-04-02 at the Wayback Machine in Page (n.d.)
Cistus × dansereaui Archived 2015-04-02 at the Wayback Machine in Page (n.d.)
Cistus × nigricans in Page (n.d.)
Cistus × pauranthus Archived 2015-04-02 at the Wayback Machine in Page (n.d.)
Cistus × platysepalus Archived 2015-04-02 at the Wayback Machine in Page (n.d.)
The Cistus & Halimium Website
Cistus × skanbergii Archived 2015-04-02 at the Wayback Machine in Page (n.d.)
Cistus × stenophyllus Archived 2015-04-02 at the Wayback Machine in Page (n.d.)
Cistus × verguinii Archived 2015-04-02 at the Wayback Machine in Page (n.d.)
Comandini, O.; Contu, M. & Rinaldi, A.C. (2006). "An overview of Cistus ectomycorrhizal fungi". Mycorrhiza. 16 (6): 381–395. doi:10.1007/s00572-006-0047-8. PMID 16896800. S2CID 195074078.
Águeda, B.; Parladé, J.; de Miguel, A.M. & Martínez-Peña, F. (2006). "Characterization and identification of field ectomycorrhizae of Boletus edulis and Cistus ladanifer" (PDF). Mycologia. 98 (1): 23–30. doi:10.3852/mycologia.98.1.23. hdl:10171/18758. PMID 16800301.
Coats, Alice M. (1992) [1964]. "Cistus". Garden Shrubs and Their Histories (1st US ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-74733-6.
"RHS Plant Selector - Cistus × aguilarii 'Maculatus'". Retrieved 15 April 2020.
"RHS Plant Selector - Cistus × argenteus 'Peggy Sammons'". Archived from the original on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
Taylor, Jane (1993). Plants for dry gardens - Beating the drought. London: Frances Lincoln Limited. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-7112-1222-0.
"RHS Plantfinder - Cistus × bornetianus 'Jester'". Retrieved 30 January 2018.
"RHS Plant Selector - Cistus × cyprius". Retrieved 15 April 2020.
"RHS Plant Selector - Cistus × cyprius var. ellipticus 'Elma'". Retrieved 15 April 2020.
"RHS Plant Selector - Cistus × dansereaui 'Decumbens'". Retrieved 15 April 2020.
"C. × dansereaui 'Jenkyn Place'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
"RHS Plantfinder - Cistus 'Gordon Cooper'". Retrieved 30 January 2018.
"RHS Plantfinder - Cistus × laxus 'Snow White'". Retrieved 30 January 2018.
"RHS Plant Selector - Cistus × lenis 'Grayswood Pink'". Retrieved 15 April 2020.
"RHS Plantfinder - Cistus × obtusifolius 'Thrive'". Retrieved 2020-04-17.
"RHS Plant Selector - Cistus × pulverulentus 'Sunset'". Retrieved 15 April 2020.
"RHS Plant Selector - Cistus × purpureus". Retrieved 15 April 2020.
"RHS Plant Selector - Cistus × skanbergii". Archived from the original on 24 December 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
"RHS Plant Selector - Cistus 'Snow Fire'". Retrieved 15 April 2020.
"×Halimiocistus 'Ingwersenii'". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.

"×Halimiocistus sahucii". RHS. Retrieved 12 April 2020.

Bibliography
Demoly, J.-P. (2006). "Notes taxonomiques, chorologiques et nouveautes nomenclaturales pour le genre Cistus L. elargi, incluant Halimium (Dunal) Spach (Cistaceae)". Acta Botanica Gallica. 153 (3): 309–323. Proposes merging Cistus and Halimium.
Demoly, J.-P. & Montserrat, P. (1993). "Cistus" (PDF). In Castroviejo, S.; Aedo, C.; Cirujano, S.; Lainz, M.; Montserrat, P.; Morales, R.; Munoz Garmendia, F.; Navarro, C.; Paiva, J.; Soriano, C. & Fernandez Arias, M.I. (eds.). Flora Iberica : Plantas vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Vol. 3. Madrid: Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC. pp. 319–337. ISBN 978-84-00-07375-6. Retrieved 2015-03-19.
Ellul, P.; Boscaiu, M.; Vicente, O.; Moreno, V. & Rossello, J.A. (2002). "Intra- and Interspecific Variation in DNA Content in Cistus (Cistaceae)". Annals of Botany. 90 (3): 345–351. doi:10.1093/aob/mcf194. PMC 4240394. PMID 12234146.
Page, R.G. (n.d.) [2002 onwards]. "The Cistus & Halimium Website". Retrieved 2015-03-01.
Sweet, Robert (1825–1830). Cistineae : the natural order of Cistus or Rock-rose. London: James Ridgeway. Retrieved 2015-03-15.
Warburg, E.F. (1968). "Cistus". In Tutin, T.G.; Heywood, V.H.; Burges, N.A.; Valentine, D.H.; Walters, S.M. & Webb, D.A. (eds.). Flora Europaea, Volume 2: Rosaceae to Umbelliferae. Cambridge University Press. pp. 282–284. ISBN 978-0-521-06662-4.

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