- Art Gallery -

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Ajugoideae
Genus: Clerodendrum
Species: C. abilioi – C. adenocalyx – C. adenophysum – C. africanum – C. albiflos – C. alboviolaceum – C. anafense – C. andamanense – C. anomalum – C. apayaoense – C. arenarium – C. atlanticum – C. aucubifolium – C. bakhuizenii – C. barba-felis – C. baronianum – C. baumii – C. bellum – C. bethuneanum – C. bingaense – C. bipindense – C. boivinii – C. bosseri – C. brachyanthum – C. brachystemon – C. bracteatum – C. brassii – C. breviflorum – C. brooksii – C. brunfelsiiflorum – C. brunnescens – C. brunsvigioides – C. buchananii – C. buchneri – C. buettneri – C. bungei – C. calamitosum – C. calcicola – C. canescens – C. capitatum – C. carnosulum – C. caryopteroides – C. cauliflorum – C. cecil-fischeri – C. cephalanthum – C. ceramenae – C. chamaeriphes – C. chartaceum – C. chinense – C. chlorisepalum – C. citrinum – C. cochinchinense – C. comans – C. condensatum – C. confine – C. confusum – C. corbisieri – C. cordatum – C. costatum – C. coulteri – C. cubense – C. cumingianum – C. curranii – C. curtisii – C. cuspidatum – C. cyrtophyllum – C. dauphinense – C. decaryi – C. deflexum – C. dembianense – C. densiflorum – C. denticulatum – C. dependens – C. dewittei – C. dinklagei – C. disparifolium – C. dusenii – C. ekmanii – C. elbertii – C. elliotii – C. elliptifolium – C. emirnense – C. erectum – C. ervatamioides – C. eucalycinum – C. eupatorioides – C. excavatum – C. farafanganense – C. fasciculatum – C. fastigiatum – C. filipes – C. finetii – C. fistulosum – C. flavum – C. floribundum – C. formicarum – C. fortunatum – C. friesii – C. frutectorum – C. fugitans – C. fuscum – C. galeatum – C. garrettianum – C. gaudichaudii – C. geoffrayi – C. gibbosum – C. glandulosum – C. globosum – C. globuliflorum – C. godefroyi – C. grandiflorum – C. grayi – C. grevei – C. griffithianum – C. haematolasium – C. hahnianum – C. hainanense – C. harmandianum – C. harnierianum – C. hastatum – C. hendersonii – C. henryi – C. hettae – C. hexangulatum – C. hildebrandtii – C. hircinum – C. hispidum – C. hiulcum – C. horsfieldii – C. humbertii – C. inaequipetiolatum – C. indicum – C. infortunatum – C. ingratum – C. insolitum – C. intermedium – C. involucratum – C. japonicum – C. johnstonii – C. johorense – C. kaichianum – C. kalaotoense – C. kampotense – C. kanichi – C. katangensis – C. kauderni – C. kiangsiense – C. kinabaluense – C. klemmei – C. kwangtungense – C. laciniatum – C. laevifolium – C. lanceoliferum – C. lanessanii – C. lankawiense – C. lanuginosum – C. lastellei – C. laxiflorum – C. lecomtei – C. leparense – C. leprieuri – C. leucobotrys – C. leucophloeum – C. lindemuthianum – C. lindenianum – C. lindleyi – C. lloydianum – C. longiflorum – C. longilimbum – C. longisepalum – C. lutambense – C. luteopunctatum – C. luzoniense – C. mabesae – C. macrocalycinum – C. macrocalyx – C. macrostachyum – C. macrostegium – C. madagascariense – C. magnificum – C. magnoliifolium – C. mananjariense – C. mandarinorum – C. mandrarense – C. mannii – C. manombense – C. margaritense – C. melanocrater – C. membranifolium – C. micans – C. microcalyx – C. mildbraedii – C. minahassae – C. mindorense – C. mirabile – C. moramangense – C. morigono – C. multibracteatum – C. myrianthum – C. myrmecophilum – C. myrtifolium – C. nhatrangense – C. nicolsonii – C. nipense – C. nudiflorum – C. nutans – C. oblongifolium – C. obovatum – C. ohwii – C. palmatolobatum – C. paniculatum – C. parvitubulatum – C. parvulum – C. paucidentatum – C. pauciflorum – C. peii – C. peregrinum – C. perrieri – C. petasites – C. petunioides – C. philippinense – C. phlomidis – C. phyllomega – C. picardae – C. pierreanum – C. pleiosciadium – C. poggei – C. polyanthum – C. polycephalum – C. porphyrocalyx – C. praetervisa – C. premnoides – C. preslii – C. puberulum – C. pubifolium – C. pusillum – C. putre – C. pygmaeum – C. pynaertii – C. pyrifolium – C. quadriloculare – C. ramosissimum – C. revolutum – C. ridleyi – C. riedelii – C. ringoetii – C. robecchii – C. robustum – C. roseiflorum – C. rotundifolium – C. rubellum – C. rumphianum – C. rusbyi – C. sahelangii – C. sakaleonense – C. sarawakanum – C. sassandrense – C. schmidtii – C. schweinfurthii – C. scopiferum – C. sessilifolium – C. silvanum – C. silvestre – C. singalense – C. singwanum – C. sinuatum – C. smitinandii – C. speciosissimum – C. speciosum – C. splendens – C. subpeltatum – C. subreniforme – C. subtruncatum – C. sumatranum – C. sylvae – C. sylvestre – C. tanganyikense – C. tatei – C. ternatum – C. tessmannii – C. thomsoniae – C. thyrsoideum – C. tibetanum – C. tomentellum – C. tomentosum – C. tonkinense – C. toxicarium – C. tracyanum – C. trichanthum – C. tricholobum – C. trichotomum – C. triflorum – C. tuberculatum – C. tubulosum – C. umbellatum – C. umbratile – C. urticifolium – C. utakwense – C. vanoverberghii – C. villosicalyx – C. villosum – C. vinosum – C. volubile – C. wallii – C. welwitschii – C. wenzelii – C. williamsii – C. yunnanense

Artificial Nothospecies: C. × speciosum

Clerodendrum L., Sp. Pl. 2: 637 (1753)

Type species: C. infortunatum L. Sp. Pl. 2: 637 (1753)


Siphonanthus L., Sp. Pl.: 109 (1753)
Type species: S. indicus L.
Cryptanthus Osbeck, Dagb. Ostind. Resa: 215 (1757), nom. rej.
Type species: C. chinensis Osbeck
Valdia Boehm., Defin. Gen. Pl.: 39 (1760)
Marurang Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 226 (1763)
Bellevalia Scop., Intr. Hist. Nat.: 198 (1777), nom. illeg.
Duglassia Houst., Reliq. Houstoun.: 13 (1781)
Montalbania Neck., Elem. Bot. 1: 273 (1790), opus utique oppr.
Agricolaea Schrank, Denkschr. Königl. Akad. Wiss. München 1808: 98 (1808)
Torreya Spreng., Neue Entd. 2: 121 (1821), nom. illeg.
Egena Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 85 (1837)
Adelosa Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 1: 176 (1849)
Tetraclea A.Gray, Amer. J. Sci. Arts, ser. 2, 16: 98 (1853)
Cleianthus Lour. ex B.A.Gomes, Mem. Acad. Real Sci. Lisboa, 2 Cl. Sci. Moraes, n.s., 4(1): 28 (1868)
Siphoboea Baill., Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 722 (1888)
Archboldia E.Beer & H.J.Lam, Blumea 2: 31 (1936) - Archboldia ericoides E.Beer & H.J.Lam has no equivalent in Clerodendrum and becomes an unplaced name.


Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 637.
Yao-Wu Yuan, Y-W., Mabberley, D.J., Steane, D.A.& & Olmstead, R.G. (2010) Further disintegration and redefinition of Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae): Implications for the understanding of the evolution of an intriguing breeding strategy, Taxon, 59 (1): 125–133. Available on line [1]. Accessed 2014 June 9.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2014. Clerodendrum in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 June 2. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2014. Clerodendrum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2014 June 2.
International Plant Names Index. 2014. Clerodendrum. Published online. Accessed: June 2 2014.

Vernacular names
azərbaycanca: Klerodendrum
български: Клеродендрон
বাংলা: বনজাঈ
čeština: Blahokeř
dansk: Skæbnetræ
Deutsch: Losbäume
English: Glorybower
suomi: Kohtalonpensaat, kohtalonköynnökset
français: Clérodendron
हिन्दी: भांट
magyar: Végzetcserje, végzetfa, sorsfa
മലയാളം: പെരിയാലം
русский: Клеродендрум
svenska: Klerodendrumsläktet
lea faka-Tonga: Tutuhina
Türkçe: Kısmet ağacı
中文: 大青属

Clerodendrum is a genus of flowering plants formerly placed in the family Verbenaceae, but now considered to belong to the Lamiaceae (mint) family. Its common names include glorybower, bagflower and bleeding-heart. It is currently classified in the subfamily Ajugoideae, being one of several genera transferred from Verbenaceae to Lamiaceae in the 1990s, based on phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data.

Estimates of the number of species in Clerodendrum vary widely, from about 150[2] to about 450.[3] This is partly because about 30 species have been transferred to Rotheca,[4][5] about 30 more to Volkameria, and 1 to Ovieda.[2] The type species for the genus is Clerodendrum infortunatum.[6] It is native to Sri Lanka and the Andaman Islands.[7]

The genus is native to tropical and warm temperate regions of the world, with most of the species occurring in tropical Africa and southern Asia, but with a few in the tropical Americas and northern Australasia, and a few extending north into the temperate zone in eastern Asia.[8]

They are shrubs, lianas, and small trees, usually growing to 1–12 m (3 ft 3 in–39 ft 4 in) tall, with opposite or whorled leaves. C. floribundum can grow to 30 m (98 ft) tall.[9] Clerodendrum fistulosum and Clerodendrum myrmecophila have hollow stems that are inhabited by ants.[8] Clerodendrum trichotomum is a common ornamental in warmer parts of the world.[8] Eight other species are also grown in the tropics for their abundant and attractive flowers.[10] One of these, Clerodendrum macrostegium, suckers abundantly from the roots, often producing a thicket within a few years.[10]

The following species are cultivated in the UK:

C. chinense
C. splendens
C. thomsoniae
C. trichotomum[7]

Clerodendrum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Endoclita malabaricus and Endoclita sericeus. Both butterflies and hummingbirds are often attracted to blooming clerodendrum.

Close-up of a C. quadriloculare flower

The following description is based on the one by Yuan et alii (2010) and applies to only the monophyletic circumscription of Clerodendrum.[2]

Clerodendrum is a genus of small trees, shrubs, lianas, and subherbaceous perennials. Leaves decussate or whorled, never spiny as in some close relatives.

Inflorescence usually terminal. Sepals usually connate, often colored, usually accrescent. Corolla red to yellow, pink, or white. Corolla tube 5-lobed, the lobes usually unequal.

Stamens 4 (rarely 5), usually in 2 pairs of unequal length and projecting well beyond the mouth of the corolla.

Ovary incompletely 4-locular. Ovules 4. Style terminal on the ovary, bifid.

Fruit a drupe, usually with 4 grooves or lobes, 4-seeded (rarely 2-seeded by abortion).

Clerodendrum and its relatives have an unusual pollination syndrome which avoids self-pollination. This mating system combines dichogamy and herkogamy.[2]

The flowers are protandrous. When the flower opens, the stamens stand erect, parallel to the central axis of the flower, while the style bends over, holding the stigma beyond the rim of the corolla. After the pollen is shed, the stamens curl up or bend over, and the style straightens out, bringing the stigma to the center of the flower. Except for Aegiphila, which is heterostylous, this breeding strategy is shared by all members of the clade consisting of Kalaharia, Clerodendrum, Volkameria, Aegiphila, Ovieda, Tetraclea, and Amasonia.[2]

Clerodendrum was named by Linnaeus in Species Plantarum in 1753.[11] The name is derived from two Greek words, kleros, meaning "chance or fate" or "clergy", and dendron, "a tree".[12] It refers to the considerable variation in reports of the usefulness of Clerodendrum in medicine,[8] and also to the fact the trees were used for religious purposes in Asia.

Regional revisions of Clerodendrum have been done for local floras, but the last monograph of the entire genus was by John Isaac Briquet in 1895.[13] He recognized about 90 species, defining the genus broadly to include species that others had placed in Rotheca, Volkameria, and Ovieda. His circumscription was followed by most authors for the next 100 years, even though it was widely believed to be problematic.[2]

In 1997, phylogenetic analysis of DNA data showed that Clerodendrum, as then understood, was polyphyletic.[14] This situation was remedied in 1998 with the revival of Rotheca.[4] This taxonomic change was based on previous work and on a molecular phylogenetic study that was not published until the following year.[15]

In 2004, a study of DNA sequences showed that the monospecific Australian genus Huxleya was embedded in a clade of Clerodendrum species that had formerly been placed in Volkameria.[16] Huxleya was then sunk into synonymy with Clerodendrum. The 2004 study sampled Aegiphila, Tetraclea, and Amasonia, three New World genera of Ajugoideae that had not previously been sampled for DNA. The results of this study cast doubt, once again, upon the monophyly of Clerodendrum.

In 2010, a study of four chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers showed that part of Clerodendrum was closer to the New world genera than to other Clerodendrum, and that one species of Clerodendrum was nested within the clade of New World genera.[2] The authors of this study resurrected the genus Volkameria and assigned to it about 30 species that had been in Clerodendrum. They also resurrected Ovieda as a monotypic genus consisting of Ovieda spinosa. Volkameria and Ovieda had been erected by Linnaeus in 1753. Modern cladistic analysis has largely vindicated his concepts of Clerodendrum and its relatives.
Traditional medicinal use

Clerodendrum glandulosum. Coleb leaf aqueous extract is traditionally used by people of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes, obesity and hypertension.

Among the Hmar and Zomi tribes in the North East India Anphui(Clerodendrum) is also being used as a dish/curry.[17]

Clerodendrum is strongly supported as monophyletic in molecular phylogenetic analyses. It consists of two clades, each of which receives strong bootstrap support. One clade contains mostly African species. The other is mostly Asian. The African and Asian groups can not confidently be divided into sections without more extensive sampling of taxa in phylogenetic studies. The Madagascan species, in particular, are poorly studied.[2]

It appears that the long, narrow corolla tube evolved only once in Clerodendrum, and appeared again, among its relatives, in Ovieda.[2]

Plants of the World Online currently includes:[18]

Clerodendrum abilioi R.Fern.
Clerodendrum adenocalyx Dop
Clerodendrum adenophysum Hallier f.
Clerodendrum africanum Moldenke
Clerodendrum albiflos H.J.Lam
Clerodendrum alboviolaceum Moldenke
Clerodendrum andamanense (Moldenke) A.Rajendran & P.Daniel
Clerodendrum anomalum Letouzey
Clerodendrum apayaoense Quisumb.
Clerodendrum arenarium Baker
Clerodendrum atlanticum Jongkind
Clerodendrum aucubifolium Hemsl.
Clerodendrum bakhuizenii Moldenke
Clerodendrum barba-felis Hallier f.
Clerodendrum baronianum Oliv.
Clerodendrum baumii Gürke
Clerodendrum bellum Moldenke
Clerodendrum bingaense S.Moore
Clerodendrum bipindense Gürke
Clerodendrum boivinii Moldenke
Clerodendrum bosseri Capuron
Clerodendrum brachyanthum Schauer
Clerodendrum brachystemon C.Y.Wu & R.C.Fang
Clerodendrum bracteatum Wall. ex Walp.
Clerodendrum brassii Beer & H.J.Lam
Clerodendrum breviflorum Ridl.
Clerodendrum brooksii Ridl.
Clerodendrum brunfelsiiflorum Hallier f.
Clerodendrum brunnescens Moldenke
Clerodendrum brunsvigioides Baker
Clerodendrum buchananii (Roxb.) Walp.
Clerodendrum buchneri Gürke
Clerodendrum buettneri Gürke
Clerodendrum bungei Steud.
Clerodendrum calamitosum L.
Clerodendrum canescens Wall. ex Walp.
Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach.
Clerodendrum carnosulum Baker
Clerodendrum caryopteroides Moldenke
Clerodendrum cauliflorum Vatke
Clerodendrum cecil-fischeri A.Rajendran & P.Daniel
Clerodendrum cephalanthum Oliv.
Clerodendrum ceramenae Moldenke
Clerodendrum chamaeriphes Wernham
Clerodendrum chartaceum Moldenke
Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabb.
Clerodendrum chlorisepalum Merr. ex Moldenke
Clerodendrum citrinum Ridl.
Clerodendrum cochinchinense Dop
Clerodendrum colebrookeanum Walp.
Clerodendrum comans Moldenke
Clerodendrum condensatum Miq.
Clerodendrum confine S.L.Chen & T.D.Zhuang
Clerodendrum confusum Hallier f.
Clerodendrum corbisieri De Wild.
Clerodendrum cordatum D.Don
Clerodendrum costatum R.Br.
Clerodendrum cumingianum Schauer
Clerodendrum curranii Elmer
Clerodendrum curtisii N.E.Br.
Clerodendrum cuspidatum Turcz.
Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz.
Clerodendrum dauphinense Moldenke
Clerodendrum decaryi Moldenke
Clerodendrum deflexum Wall.
Clerodendrum dembianense Chiov.
Clerodendrum densiflorum Griff.
Clerodendrum denticulatum Moldenke
Clerodendrum dependens Aug.DC.
Clerodendrum dewittei Moldenke
Clerodendrum dinklagei Gürke
Clerodendrum disparifolium Blume
Clerodendrum dusenii Gürke
Clerodendrum ekmanii Moldenke
Clerodendrum elbertii Hallier f.
Clerodendrum elliotii Moldenke
Clerodendrum elliptifolium Merr.
Clerodendrum emirnense Bojer ex Hook.
Clerodendrum erectum De Wild.
Clerodendrum ervatamioides C.Y.Wu
Clerodendrum eucalycinum Oliv.
Clerodendrum eupatorioides Baker
Clerodendrum excavatum De Wild.
Clerodendrum farafanganense Moldenke
Clerodendrum fasciculatum B.Thomas
Clerodendrum fastigiatum (W.Hunter) H.J.Lam
Clerodendrum filipes Moldenke
Clerodendrum finetii Dop
Clerodendrum fistulosum Becc.
Clerodendrum flavum Merr.
Clerodendrum floribundum R.Br.
Clerodendrum formicarum Gürke
Clerodendrum fortunatum L.
Clerodendrum friesii K.Schum.
Clerodendrum frutectorum S.Moore
Clerodendrum fugitans Wernham
Clerodendrum fuscum Gürke
Clerodendrum galeatum Balf.f.
Clerodendrum garrettianum Craib
Clerodendrum gaudichaudii Dop
Clerodendrum geoffrayi Dop
Clerodendrum gibbosum Moldenke
Clerodendrum giganteum (Moldenke) Phillipson & Callm.
Clerodendrum globosum Moldenke
Clerodendrum globuliflorum B.Thomas
Clerodendrum godefroyi Kuntze
Clerodendrum grayi Munir
Clerodendrum grevei Moldenke
Clerodendrum griffithianum C.B.Clarke
Clerodendrum haematolasium Hallier f.
Clerodendrum hahnianum Dop
Clerodendrum hainanense Hand.-Mazz.
Clerodendrum harmandianum Dop
Clerodendrum hastatum (Roxb.) Lindl.
Clerodendrum hendersonii Moldenke
Clerodendrum henryi C.Pei
Clerodendrum hettae Hallier f.
Clerodendrum hexangulatum B.Thomas
Clerodendrum hildebrandtii Vatke
Clerodendrum hircinum Schauer
Clerodendrum hispidum M.R.Hend.
Clerodendrum hiulcum Moldenke
Clerodendrum horsfieldii Miq.
Clerodendrum humbertii Moldenke
Clerodendrum inaequipetiolatum R.D.Good
Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze
Clerodendrum infortunatum L. type species
Clerodendrum ingratum K.Schum. & Lauterb.
Clerodendrum insolitum Moldenke
Clerodendrum intermedium Cham.
Clerodendrum involucratum Vatke
Clerodendrum izuinsulare K.Inoue & M.Haseg. & Shiro Kobay.
Clerodendrum japonicum (Thunb.) Sweet
Clerodendrum johnstonii Oliv.
Clerodendrum johorense Moldenke
Clerodendrum kaichianum P.S.Hsu
Clerodendrum kalaotoense H.J.Lam
Clerodendrum kamhyoae Phillipson & L.Allorge
Clerodendrum kampotense Dop
Clerodendrum kanichi De Wild.
Clerodendrum katangensis De Wild.
Clerodendrum kauderni Moldenke
Clerodendrum kiangsiense Merr. ex H.L.Li
Clerodendrum kinabaluense Stapf
Clerodendrum klemmei Elmer
Clerodendrum kwangtungense Hand.-Mazz.
Clerodendrum laciniatum Balf.f.
Clerodendrum laevifolium Blume
Clerodendrum lanceoliferum S.Moore
Clerodendrum lanessanii Dop
Clerodendrum lankawiense King & Gamble
Clerodendrum lanuginosum Blume
Clerodendrum lastellei Moldenke
Clerodendrum laxiflorum Baker
Clerodendrum lecomtei Dop
Clerodendrum leparense Moldenke
Clerodendrum leucobotrys Breteler
Clerodendrum leucophloeum Balf.f.
Clerodendrum lindenianum A.Rich.
Clerodendrum lindleyi Decne. ex Planch.
Clerodendrum lloydianum Craib
Clerodendrum longiflorum Decne.
Clerodendrum longilimbum C.Pei
Clerodendrum longisepalum Dop
Clerodendrum lutambense Verdc.
Clerodendrum luteopunctatum C.Pei & S.L.Chen
Clerodendrum luzoniense Merr.
Clerodendrum mabesae Merr.
Clerodendrum macrocalycinum Baker
Clerodendrum macrocalyx H.J.Lam
Clerodendrum macrostegium Schauer
Clerodendrum madagascariense Moldenke
Clerodendrum magnificum Warb.
Clerodendrum magnoliifolium Baker
Clerodendrum mananjariense Moldenke
Clerodendrum mandarinorum Diels
Clerodendrum mandrarense Moldenke
Clerodendrum mannii Baker
Clerodendrum manombense Moldenke
Clerodendrum margaritense Moldenke
Clerodendrum melanocrater Gürke
Clerodendrum membranifolium H.J.Lam
Clerodendrum micans Gürke
Clerodendrum microcalyx Ridl.
Clerodendrum mildbraedii B.Thomas
Clerodendrum minahassae Teijsm. & Binn.
Clerodendrum mindorense Merr.
Clerodendrum moramangense Moldenke
Clerodendrum morigono Chiov.
Clerodendrum multibracteatum Merr.
Clerodendrum myrianthum Mildbr.
Clerodendrum myrmecophilum Ridl.
Clerodendrum myrtifolium Moldenke
Clerodendrum nhatrangense Dop
Clerodendrum nicolsonii A.Rajendran & P.Daniel
Clerodendrum nipense Urb.
Clerodendrum nutans Wall. ex Jack
Clerodendrum oblongifolium Kochummen
Clerodendrum ohwii Kaneh. & Hatus.
Clerodendrum palmatolobatum Dop
Clerodendrum paniculatum L.
Clerodendrum parvitubulatum B.Thomas
Clerodendrum parvulum L.S.Sm.
Clerodendrum paucidentatum Moldenke
Clerodendrum pauciflorum Moldenke
Clerodendrum peii Moldenke
Clerodendrum peregrinum Moldenke
Clerodendrum perrieri Moldenke
Clerodendrum petasites (Lour.) S.Moore
Clerodendrum petunioides Baker
Clerodendrum philippinense Elmer
Clerodendrum phlomidis L.f.
Clerodendrum phyllomega Steud.
Clerodendrum pierreanum Dop
Clerodendrum pleiosciadium Gürke
Clerodendrum poggei Gürke
Clerodendrum polyanthum Gürke
Clerodendrum polycephalum Baker
Clerodendrum porphyrocalyx K.Schum. & Lauterb.
Clerodendrum praetervisa Guinea
Clerodendrum premnoides Moldenke
Clerodendrum preslii Elmer
Clerodendrum puberulum Merr.
Clerodendrum pubiflorum (Bakh. ex Moldenke) Wearn
Clerodendrum pubifolium Quisumb. & Merr.
Clerodendrum pusillum Gürke
Clerodendrum putre Schauer
Clerodendrum pygmaeum Merr.
Clerodendrum pynaertii De Wild.
Clerodendrum pyrifolium Baker
Clerodendrum quadriloculare (Blanco) Merr.
Clerodendrum ramosissimum Baker
Clerodendrum revolutum Bosser
Clerodendrum ridleyi King & Gamble
Clerodendrum riedelii Oliv.
Clerodendrum ringoetii De Wild.
Clerodendrum robecchii Chiov.
Clerodendrum robustum Klotzsch
Clerodendrum roseiflorum Moldenke
Clerodendrum rotundifolium Oliv.
Clerodendrum rubellum Baker
Clerodendrum rumphianum de Vriese
Clerodendrum rusbyi Moldenke
Clerodendrum sahelangii Koord. ex Bakh.
Clerodendrum sakaleonense Moldenke
Clerodendrum sarawakanum H.J.Lam
Clerodendrum sassandrense Jongkind
Clerodendrum sayapense Wearn
Clerodendrum schmidtii C.B.Clarke
Clerodendrum schweinfurthii Gürke
Clerodendrum scopiferum Miq.
Clerodendrum sessilifolium Moldenke
Clerodendrum silvanum Henriq.
Clerodendrum silvestre B.Thomas
Clerodendrum singalense Miq.
Clerodendrum singwanum B.Thomas
Clerodendrum sinuatum Hook.
Clerodendrum smitinandii Moldenke
Clerodendrum speciosissimum Drapiez
Clerodendrum splendens G.Don
Clerodendrum subpeltatum Wernham
Clerodendrum subreniforme Gürke
Clerodendrum subtruncatum Moldenke
Clerodendrum sumatranum Moldenke
Clerodendrum sylvae Adain
Clerodendrum sylvestre Moldenke
Clerodendrum tanganyikense Baker
Clerodendrum tatei (F.Muell.) Munir
Clerodendrum ternatum Schinz
Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf.f.
Clerodendrum thouarsii Phillipson & Callm.
Clerodendrum thyrsoideum Gürke
Clerodendrum tibetanum C.Y.Wu & S.K.Wu
Clerodendrum tomentellum Hutch. & Dalziel
Clerodendrum tomentosum (Vent.) R.Br.
Clerodendrum tonkinense Dop
Clerodendrum toxicarium Baker
Clerodendrum tracyanum (F.Muell.) Benth.
Clerodendrum trichanthum Bosser
Clerodendrum tricholobum Gürke
Clerodendrum trichotomum Thunb.
Clerodendrum triflorum Vis.
Clerodendrum tubulosum Moldenke
Clerodendrum umbellatum Poir.
Clerodendrum umbratile King & Gamble
Clerodendrum urticifolium (Roxb.) Wall. ex Voigt
Clerodendrum utakwense Wernham
Clerodendrum vanoverberghii Merr.
Clerodendrum villosicalyx Moldenke
Clerodendrum villosum Blume
Clerodendrum vinosum Moldenke
Clerodendrum volubile P.Beauv.
Clerodendrum wallii Moldenke
Clerodendrum welwitschii Gürke
Clerodendrum wenzelii Merr.
Clerodendrum williamsii Elmer
Clerodendrum yunnanense Hu[19]

Formerly placed here

Pseudocaryopteris foetida (D.Don) P.D.Cantino (as C. foetidum D.Don)
Rotheca incisa (Klotzsch) Steane & Mabb. (as C. incisum Klotzsch or C. macrosiphon Hook.f.)
Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb. (as C. myricoides (Hochst.) Vatke or C. ugandense Prain)
Rotheca serrata (L.) Steane & Mabb. (as C. serratum (L.) Moon)
Volkameria aculeata L. (as C. aculeatum (L.) Schltdl.)
Volkameria glabra (E.Mey.) Mabb. & Y.W.Yuan (as C. glabrum E.Mey.)
Volkameria inermis L. (as C. inerme (L.) Gaertn.)
Volkameria ligustrina Jacq. (as C. ligustrinum (Jacq.) R.Br.)[19]



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Raymond M. Harley, Sandy Atkins, Andrey L. Budantsev, Philip D. Cantino, Barry J. Conn, Renée J. Grayer, Madeline M. Harley, Rogier P.J. de Kok, Tatyana V. Krestovskaja, Ramón Morales, Alan J. Paton, and P. Olof Ryding. 2004. "Labiatae" pages 167-275. In: Klaus Kubitzki (editor) and Joachim W. Kadereit (volume editor). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants volume VII. Springer-Verlag: Berlin; Heidelberg, Germany. ISBN 978-3-540-40593-1
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Rosette B. Fernandes and Bernard Verdcourt. 2000. "Rotheca (Labiatae) revived - more new combinations". Kew Bulletin 55(1):147-154.
Clerodendrum In: Index Nominum Genericorum. In: Regnum Vegetabile (see External links below).
Anthony J. Huxley, Mark Griffiths, and Margot Levy (editors). 1992. The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. The Macmillan Press Limited, London; The Stockton Press, New York.
David J. Mabberley. 2008. Mabberley's Plant-Book third edition (2008). Cambridge University Press: UK. ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4
Floyd, Alexander G., Australian Rainforests in New South Wales Volume 2 - 1990 ISBN 0-949324-32-9 page 179
George W. Staples and Derral R. Herbst "A Tropical Garden Flora" Bishop Museum Press: Honolulu (2005)
Clerodendrum page 637. In: Carolus Linnaeus. 1753. Species Plantarum volume 2. Laurentii Salvii. (see External Links below).
Umberto Quattrocchi. 2000. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names volume I, page 559. CRC Press: Boca Raton; New York; Washington,DC;, US. London, UK. ISBN 978-0-8493-2673-8 (set).
John Isaac Briquet. 1895. "Clerodendrum" pages 174-176. In: "Verbenaceae" pages 132-182. In: Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien volume IV, part 3a. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig, Germany.
Dorothy A. Steane; Robert W. Scotland; David J. Mabberley (1997). "Phylogenetic Relationships of Clerodendrum s.l. (Lamiaceae) Inferred from Chloroplast DNA". Systematic Botany. 22 (2): 229–243. doi:10.2307/2419455. JSTOR 2419455.
Dorothy A. Steane; Robert W. Scotland; David J. Mabberley; Richard G. Olmstead (1999). "Molecular systematics of Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae): ITS sequences and total evidence" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 86 (1): 98–107. doi:10.2307/2656958. JSTOR 2656958. PMID 21680349.
Dorothy A. Steane; Rogier P.J. de Kok; Richard G. Olmstead (2004). "Phylogenetic relationships between Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae) and other Ajugoid genera inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence data". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 32 (1): 39–45. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.11.011. PMID 15186795.
Anphui Dish from Biaki's Kitchen- https://m.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=699621273413089&id=440688782639674&set=a.440710989304120.111092.440688782639674
Plants of the World Online: Clerodendrum L. (retrieved 8 July 2020)
"GRIN Species Records of Clerodendrum". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 20 January 2009. Retrieved 17 February 2011.

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