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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales

Familia: Polygonaceae
Subfamilia: Eriogonoideae
Tribus: Coccolobeae
Genus: Coccoloba
Species: C. acapulcensis – C. acrostichoides – C. acuminata – C. acuna – C. albicans – C. alnifolia – C. arborescens – C. arboreus – C. argentinensis – C. armata – C. ascendens – C. baracoensis – C. barbadensis – C. barkeri – C. belizensis – C. benitensis – C. berazainiae – C. boxii – C. brasiliensis – C. buchii – C. bullata – C. caesia – C. caracasana – C. caravellae – C. ceibensis – C. cereifera – C. charitostachya – C. chiapensis – C. cholutecensis – C. clementis – C. colombiana – C. conduplicata – C. cordata – C. coriacea – C. coronata – C. costata – C. cowellii – C. cozumelensis – C. cristalensis – C. cruegeri – C. cujabensis – C. darienensis – C. declinata – C. densifrons – C. diversifolia – C. dussii – C. dwyeri – C. escuintlensis – C. excelsa – C. fallax – C. fastigiata – C. fawcettii – C. filipes – C. flavescens – C. floresii – C. floribunda – C. fuertesii – C. gardneri – C. geniculata – C. gentryi – C. gigantifolia – C. glaziovii – C. goldmanii – C. gracilis – C. grandiflora – C. guanacastensis – C. guaranitica – C. gymnorrhachis – C. hirtella – C. hondurensis – C. hotteana – C. howardii – C. humboldtii – C. incrassata – C. jimenezii – C. johnstonii – C. jurgensenii – C. klotzschiana – C. krugii – C. laevis – C. lanceolata – C. lapathifolia – C. lasseri – C. latifolia – C. lehmannii – C. leoganensis – C. leonardii – C. liebmannii – C. lindaviana – C. lindeniana – C. liportizii – C. llewelynii – C. longifolia – C. longipes – C. lucidula – C. manzinellensis – C. marginata – C. meissneriana – C. microphylla – C. microstachya – C. mollis – C. montana – C. mosenii – C. munizii – C. nervosa – C. nicaraguensis – C. nigrescens – C. nipensis – C. nitida – C. nodosa – C. northropiae – C. nutans – C. obovata – C. obtusifolia – C. ochreolata – C. oligantha – C. orinocana – C. orizabae – C. ortizii – C. ovata – C. padiformis – C. pallida – C. paraensis – C. paraguariensis – C. pauciflora – C. peltata – C. persicaria – C. peruviana – C. petrophila – C. picardae – C. plantaginea – C. plumieri – C. porphyrostachys – C. portuguesana – C. praecox – C. praestans – C. proctorii – C. pubescens – C. pyrifolia – C. ramosisissima – C. ramosissima – C. reflexa – C. reflexiflora – C. retirensis – C. retusa – C. rigida – C. rosea – C. rufescens – C. rugosa – C. ruiziana – C. salicifolia – C. samanensis – C. savannarum – C. scandens – C. schomburgkiana – C. shaferi – C. sintenisii – C. spicata – C. spinescens – C. standleyana – C. steinbachii – C. sticticaulis – C. striata – C. subcordata – C. swartzii – C. taylorii – C. tenuiflora – C. tenuifolia – C. tiliacea – C. toaensis – C. troyana – C. tuerckheimii – C. tunii – C. urbaniana – C. uvifera – C. venosa – C. warmingii – C. williamsii – C. wrightii – C. wurdackii – C. yaracuyensis – C. yaterensis – C. zebra – C. zuliana
Nothospecies: C. × boxii – C. × hybrida – C. × jamaicensis – C. × lundellii

Coccoloba P.Browne, Civ. Nat. Hist. Jamaica 209. (1756) as Coccolobis ; nom. et typ. cons. et orth. cons.

Type species: Coccoloba uvifera L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 2: 1007. (1759)


Campderia Benth.
Coccolobis P.Browne
Guaiabara Mill.
Guiabara Adans.
Lyperodendron Willd. ex Meisn.
Naucorephes Raf.
Schlosseria Mill. ex Steud.
Uvifera L. ex Kuntze

Coccoloba gigantifolia leaf size

Coccoloba gigantifolia


Browne, P. 1756. The Civil and Natural History of Jamaica in Three Parts 209–210.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Coccoloba in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Mar. 3. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2021. Coccoloba. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Sept. 4. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2021. Coccoloba. Published online. Accessed: Aug. 20 2021.
Tropicos.org 2021. Coccoloba. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Sept. 4.

Vernacular names
suomi: Norsunkorvat

Coccoloba is a genus of about 120–150 species of flowering plants in the family Polygonaceae,[1] which is native to the Neotropics. There is no overall English name for the genus, although many of the individual species have widely used common names.


The genus is native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas, in South America, the Caribbean and Central America, with two species extending into Florida.[2][3]

The species are shrubs and trees, and lianas, mostly evergreen. The leaves are alternate, often large (to very large in some species; up to 36 in (90 cm) wide in C. pubescens),[4] with the leaves on juvenile plants often larger and of different shape to those of mature plants. The flowers are produced in spikes. The fruit is a three-angled achene, surrounded by an often brightly coloured fleshy perianth, edible in some species, though often astringent.[2][3] Species in the genus have been characterized as dioecious,[5] but this is unclear.[6] Trioecy has been documented in at least one case.[7]
Selected species

Coccoloba acuminata
Coccoloba barbadensis – Uvero
Coccoloba caracasana – Papaturro
Coccoloba cereifera
Coccoloba costata – Uvilla
Coccoloba diversifolia – Pigeonplum
Coccoloba gigantifolia (with human-sized leaves[8])
Coccoloba goldmanii
Coccoloba krugii – Whitewood seagrape
Coccoloba microstachya – Puckhout
Coccoloba mollis
Coccoloba padiformis
Coccoloba pallida – Pale seagrape
Coccoloba pubescens – Grandleaf seagrape
Coccoloba pyrifolia – Uvera
Coccoloba rugosa – Ortegon
Coccoloba sintenisii – Uvero de monte
Coccoloba swartzii – Swartz's pigeonplum
Coccoloba tenuifolia – Bahama pigeonplum
Coccoloba tuerckheimii
Coccoloba uvifera – Seagrape
Coccoloba venosa – False chiggergrape


The genus includes several ectomycorrhizal species; for example, C. uvifera is apparently associated with at least the following macrofungal families Amanitaceae, Russulaceae, and Boletaceae. The species Coccoloba cereifera is notable for being restricted to an area of only some 26 square km on a single low peak near Serra do Cipó National Park, in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais.[13]
Cultivation and uses

One species, Coccoloba uvifera (Seagrape) is commonly cultivated for its edible fruit, and the genus name is sometimes used to denote this species.

Acevedo-Rodriguez, Pedro; Strong, Mark (2012). "Catalog of Seed Plants of the West Indies" (PDF). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany. 98: 1–1221. doi:10.5479/si.0081024X.98.1.
Flora of North America: Coccoloba
Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
J.G. Rohwer, Tropical Plants of the World (New York: Sterling, 2002)
Howard, Richard A. (1949). "The Genus Coccoloba in Cuba". Journal of the Arnold Arboretum. 30 (4): 388–424. doi:10.5962/bhl.part.18052. JSTOR 43782355.
Madriz, Rosario; Ramirez, Nelson (1996–1997). "Biologia reproductiva de Coccoloba uvifera (Polygonaceae) una especie poligamo-dioica". Revista de Biología Tropical. 44(3)/45(1): 105–115.
Silva, Clice Alexandre; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Vieria, Milene Faria; Fernandes, Geraldo Wison (2008). "Trioecy in Coccoloba cereifera Schwacke (Polygonaceae), a Narrow Endemic and Threatened Tropical Species". Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 51 (5): 1003–1010. doi:10.1590/S1516-89132008000500017.
"Amazonian Tree With Human-Sized Leaves Finally Gets New Species Recognition". EcoWatch. 2019-11-28. Retrieved 2019-12-11.
USDA Plants Profile: Coccoloba
Global Compendium of Weeds: Coccoloba acuminata
Plants of Hawaii: Polygonaceae Archived 2008-05-04 at the Wayback Machine
Melo, E.; Cid Ferreira, C.A.; Gribel, R. (11 November 2019). "[Botany • 2019] Coccoloba gigantifolia (Polygonaceae) • A New Species of Coccoloba P. Browne from the Brazilian Amazon with Exceptionally Large Leaves". Species New to Science. novataxa.blogspot.com. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
Katia Torres Ribeiro; G. Wilson Fernandes (1999). "Geographic distribution of Coccoloba cereifera Schw. (Polygonaceae), a narrow endemic plant from Serra do Cipó, Brazil" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-06.

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