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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Gentianales

Familia: Rubiaceae
Subfamilia: Ixoroideae
Tribus: Coffeeae
Genus: Coffea
Subgenera: C. subg. Baracoffea – C. subg. Coffea

Species: C. abbayesii – C. affinis – C. alleizettii – C. ambanjensis – C. ambongensis – C. andrambovatensis – C. ankaranensis – C. anthonyi – C. arabica – C. arenesiana – C. augagneurii – C. bakossii – C. benghalensis – C. bertrandii – C. betamponensis – C. bissetiae – C. boinensis – C. boiviniana – C. bonnieri – C. brassii – C. brevipes – C. bridsoniae – C. buxifolia – C. canephora – C. carrissoi – C. charrieriana – C. cochinchinensis – C. commersoniana – C. congensis – C. costatifructa – C. coursiana – C. dactylifera – C. decaryana – C. dubardii – C. ebracteolata – C. eugenioides – C. fadenii – C. farafanganensis – C. floresiana – C. fotsoana – C. fragilis – C. fragrans – C. gallienii – C. grevei – C. heimii – C. homollei – C. horsfieldiana – C. humbertii – C. humblotiana – C. humilis – C. jumellei – C. kapakata – C. kianjavatensis – C. kihansiensis – C. kimbozensis – C. kivuensis – C. labatii – C. lancifolia – C. lebruniana – C. leonimontana – C. leroyi – C. liaudii – C. liberica – C. ligustroides – C. littoralis – C. lulandoensis – C. mabesae – C. macrocarpa – C. madurensis – C. magnistipula – C. malabarica – C. mangoroensis – C. mannii – C. manombensis – C. mapiana – C. mauritiana – C. mayombensis – C. mcphersonii – C. melanocarpa – C. merguensis – C. millotii – C. minutiflora – C. mogenetii – C. mongensis – C. montekupensis – C. montis-sacri – C. moratii – C. mufindiensis – C. myrtifolia – C. namorokensis – C. neobridsoniae – C. neoleroyi – C. perrieri – C. pervilleana – C. pocsii – C. pseudozanguebariae – C. pterocarpa – C. racemosa – C. rakotonasoloi – C. ratsimamangae – C. resinosa – C. rhamnifolia – C. richardii – C. sahafaryensis – C. sakarahae – C. salvatrix – C. sambavensis – C. sapinii – C. schliebenii – C. semsei – C. sessiliflora – C. stenophylla – C. tetragona – C. togoensis – C. toshii – C. travancorensis – C. tricalysioides – C. tsirananae – C. vatovavyensis – C. vavateninensis – C. vianneyi – C. vohemarensis – C. wightiana – C. zanguebariae

Nothospecies: C. × heterocalyx
Name

Coffea L., Sp. Pl. 1: 172. (1753)

Type species: Coffea arabica L., Sp. Pl. 1: 172. (1753)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Cafe Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 500 (1763)
Cafea Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 145 (1763)
Nescidia A.Rich. ex DC., Prodr. 4: 477 (Sept. 1830)
Hexepta Raf., Sylva Tellur.: 164 (1838)
Leiochilus Hook.f. in G.Bentham & J.D.Hooker, Gen. Pl. 2: 116 (1873)
Psilanthus Hook.f., Hooker's Icon. Pl. 12: t. 1129 (1873)
Pleurocoffea Baill., Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 270 (1880)
Solenixora Baill., Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 1: 242 (1880)
Buseria T.Durand, Index Gen. Phan.: 501 (1888)
Paolia Chiov., Result. Sci. Miss. Stefan.-Paoli Somal. Ital. 1: 93 (1916)
Psilanthopsis A.Chev., Rev. Bot. Appl. Agric. Trop. 19: 403 (1939)
Cofeanthus A.Chev., Cafeiers du Globe 3: 226 (1947)
Paracoffea J.-F.Leroy, J. Agric. Trop. Bot. Appl. 14: 276 (1967 publ. 1968)

Note: The above subgenera can not now be sustained and they should be removed now that combinations formerly in Psilanthus have been transferred.
References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 172.
Davis, A. P., Govaerts, R., Bridson, D. M. and Stoffelen, P. 2006. An annotated taxonomic conspectus of the genus Coffea (Rubiaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 152: 465–512. Older circumscription.
Davis, A.P. 2010. Six species of Psilanthus transferred to Coffea (Coffeeae, Rubiaceae). Phytotaxa 10: 41–45. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.10.1.6 Paywall Summary PDF Reference page.
Davis, A.P., Tosh, J., Ruch, N. & Fay, M.F. 2011. Growing coffee: Psilanthus (Rubiaceae) subsumed on the basis of molecular and morphological data; implications for the size, morphology, distribution and evolutionary history of Coffea. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 167(4): 357-377. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2011.01177.x Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Coffea in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Nov. 15. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Coffea. Published online. Accessed: Dec. 8 2018.

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Koffie
العربية: بن
беларуская: Кафейнае дрэва
čeština: Kávovník
dansk: Kaffe-slægten
Deutsch: Kaffee
Ελληνικά: Καφεόδεντρο
English: Coffee
Esperanto: Kafarbo
español: Cafeto
suomi: Kahvipensaat
Nordfriisk: Kofe
français: Caféier
עברית: קפה
magyar: Kávé
Bahasa Indonesia: Tanaman kopi
日本語: コーヒーノキ
lietuvių: Kavamedis
македонски: Кафе
Nederlands: Koffieplant
norsk nynorsk: Kaffiplante
norsk: Kaffeplanter
Deitsch: Kaffi
polski: Kawowiec
português: Cafeeiro
русский: Кофейное дерево
slovenščina: Kavovec
српски / srpski: Кафа
svenska: Kaffesläktet
українська: Кавове дерево
Tiếng Việt: Cây cà phê
中文: 咖啡树

Coffea is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae. Coffea species are shrubs or small trees native to tropical and southern Africa and tropical Asia. The seeds of some species, called coffee beans, are used to flavor various beverages and products. The fruits, like the seeds, contain a large amount of caffeine, and have a distinct sweet taste and are often juiced. The plant ranks as one of the world's most valuable and widely traded commodity crops and is an important export product of several countries, including those in Central and South America, the Caribbean and Africa.

Cultivation and use

There are over 120 species of Coffea, which is grown from seed. The two most popular are Coffea arabica (commonly known simply as "Arabica"), which accounts for 60–80% of the world's coffee production, and Coffea canephora (known as "Robusta"), which accounts for about 20–40%.[1][2] C. arabica is preferred for its sweeter taste, while C. canephora has a higher caffeine content. C. arabica has its origins in the highlands of Ethiopia and the Boma Plateau of Sudan, and was the result of a hybrid between C. canephora and C. eugenioides.[3]

The trees produce edible red or purple fruits, which are described either as epigynous berries or as indehiscent drupes.[4] The fruit is often referred to as a "coffee cherry," and it contains two seeds, called "coffee beans."[5] Despite these terms, coffee is neither a true cherry (the fruit of certain species in the genus Prunus) nor a true bean (seeds from plants in the family Fabaceae).

In about 5–10% of any crop of coffee fruits, only a single bean is found. Called a peaberry, it is smaller and rounder than a normal coffee bean.

When grown in the tropics, coffee is a vigorous bush or small tree that usually grows to a height of 3–3.5 m (9.8–11.5 ft). Most commonly cultivated coffee species grow best at high elevations, but do not tolerate freezing temperatures.[6]

The tree of Coffea arabica will grow fruits after three to five years, producing for an average of 50 to 60 years, although up to 100 is possible.[7] The white flowers are highly scented. The fruit takes about nine months to ripen.

The caffeine in coffee beans serves as a toxic substance protecting the seeds of the plant, a form of natural plant defense against herbivory. Caffeine simultaneously attracts pollinators, specifically honeybees, by creating an olfactory memory that signals bees to return to the plant's flowers.[8] Not all Coffea species contain caffeine, and the earliest species had little or no caffeine content. Caffeine has evolved independently in multiple lineages of Coffea in Africa, perhaps in response to high pest predation in the humid environments of West-Central Africa.[8] Caffeine has also evolved independently in the more distantly related genera Theobroma (cacao) and Camellia (tea).[9] This suggests that caffeine production is an adaptive trait in coffee and plant evolution. The fruit and leaves also contain caffeine, and can be used to make coffee cherry tea and coffee-leaf tea. The fruit is also used in many brands of soft drink as well as pre-packaged teas.[10][11][12][13]

Several insect pests affect coffee production, including the coffee borer beetle (Hypothenemus hampei) and the coffee leafminer (Leucoptera caffeina).

Coffee is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species, Dalcera abrasa, turnip moth and some members of the genus Endoclita, including E. damor and E. malabaricus.
Research

New species of Coffea are still being identified in the 2000s. In 2008 and 2009, researchers from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew named seven from the mountains of northern Madagascar, including C. ambongensis, C. boinensis, C. labatii, C. pterocarpa, C. bissetiae, and C. namorokensis.[14]

In 2008, two new species were discovered in Cameroon. Coffea charrieriana, which is caffeine-free, and Coffea anthonyi.[15] By crossing the new species with other known coffees, two new features might be introduced to cultivated coffee plants: beans without caffeine and self-pollination.

In 2011, Coffea absorbed the twenty species of the former genus Psilanthus due to the morphological and genetic similarities between the two genera.[16] Historically, the two have been considered distinct genera due to differences in the length of the corolla tube and the anther arrangement: Coffea with a short corolla tube and exserted style and anthers; Psilanthus with a long corolla tube and included anthers. However, these characteristics were not present in all species of either respective genus, making the two genera overwhelmingly similar in both morphology and genetic sequence. This transfer expanded Coffea from 104 species to 124, and extended its native distribution to tropical Asia and Australasia.

In 2014, the coffee genome was published, with more than 25,000 genes identified. This revealed that coffee plants make caffeine using a different set of genes from those found in tea, cacao and other such plants.[17]

In 2017, a robust and almost fully resolved phylogeny of the entire genus was published.[8] In addition to resolving the relationships of Coffea species, this study's results suggest Africa or Asia as the likely ancestral origin of Coffea and point to several independent radiations across Africa, Asia, and the Western Indian Ocean Islands.

In 2020 a technique of DNA fingerprinting, or genetic authentication of plant material was proven effective for coffee.[18] For the study, scientists used DNA extraction and SSR marker analysis. This technique or ones similar may allow for several improvements to coffee production such as improved information for farmers as to the susceptibility of their coffee plants to pests and disease, a professionalized coffee seed system, and transparency and traceability for buyers of green, un-roasted coffee.
Species

Coffea abbayesii J.-F.Leroy
Coffea affinis De Wild.
Coffea alleizettii Dubard
Coffea ambanjensis J.-F.Leroy
Coffea ambongenis J.-F.Leroy ex A.P.Davis
Coffea andrambovatensis J.-F.Leroy
Coffea ankaranensis J.-F.Leroy ex A.P.Davis
Coffea anthonyi Stoff. & F.Anthony
Coffea arabica L.
Coffea arenesiana J.-F.Leroy
Coffea augagneurii Dubard
Coffea bakossii Cheek & Bridson
Coffea benghalensis B.Heyne ex Schult.
Coffea bertrandii A.Chev.
Coffea betamponensis Portères & J.-F.Leroy
Coffea bissetiae A.P.Davis & Rakotonas.
Coffea boinensis A.P.Davis & Rakotonas.
Coffea boiviniana A.P.Davis & Rakotonas.
Coffea bonnieri Dubard
Coffea brassii (J.-F.Leroy) A.P.Davis
Coffea brevipes Hiern
Coffea bridsoniae A.P.Davis & Mvungi
Coffea buxifolia A.Chev.
Coffea canephora ("Coffea robusta") Pierre ex A.Froehner
Coffea carrissoi A.Chev.
Coffea charrieriana Stoff. & F.Anthony
Coffea cochinchinensis Pierre ex Pit.
Coffea commersoniana (Baill.) A.Chev.
Coffea congensis A.Froehner
Coffea costatifructa Bridson
Coffea coursiana J.-F.Leroy
Coffea dactylifera Robbr. & Stoff.
Coffea decaryana J.-F.Leroy
Coffea dubardii Jum.
Coffea ebracteolata (Hiern) Brenan
Coffea eugenioides S.Moore
Coffea fadenii Bridson
Coffea farafanganensis J.-F.Leroy
Coffea floresiana Boerl.
Coffea fotsoana Stoff. & Sonké
Coffea fragilis J.-F.Leroy
Coffea fragrans Wall. ex Hook.f.
Coffea gallienii Dubard
Coffea grevei Drake ex A.Chev.
Coffea heimii J.-F.Leroy
Coffea homollei J.-F.Leroy
Coffea horsfieldiana Miq.
Coffea humbertii J.-F.Leroy
Coffea humblotiana Baill.
Coffea humilis A.Chev.
Coffea jumellei J.-F.Leroy
Coffea kapakata (A.Chev.) Bridson
Coffea kianjavatensis J.-F.Leroy
Coffea kihansiensis A.P.Davis & Mvungi
Coffea kimbozensis Bridson
Coffea kivuensis Lebrun
Coffea labatii A.P.Davis & Rakotonas.
Coffea lancifolia A.Chev.
Coffea lebruniana Germ. & Kester
Coffea leonimontana Stoff.
Coffea leroyi A.P.Davis
Coffea liaudii J.-F.Leroy ex A.P.Davis
Coffea liberica Hiern
Coffea ligustroides S.Moore
Coffea littoralis A.P.Davis & Rakotonas.
Coffea lulandoensis Bridson
Coffea mabesae (Elmer) J.-F.Leroy
Coffea macrocarpa A.Rich.
Coffea madurensis Teijsm. & Binn. ex Koord.
Coffea magnistipula Stoff. & Robbr.
Coffea malabarica (Sivar., Biju & P.Mathew) A.P.Davis
Coffea mangoroensis Portères
Coffea mannii (Hook.f.) A.P.Davis
Coffea manombensis A.P.Davis
Coffea mapiana Sonké, Nguembou & A.P.Davis
Coffea mauritiana Lam.
Coffea mayombensis A.Chev.
Coffea mcphersonii A.P.Davis & Rakotonas.
Coffea melanocarpa Welw. ex Hiern
Coffea merguensis Ridl.
Coffea millotii J.-F.Leroy
Coffea minutiflora A.P.Davis & Rakotonas.
Coffea mogenetii Dubard
Coffea mongensis Bridson
Coffea montekupensis Stoff.
Coffea montis-sacri A.P.Davis
Coffea moratii J.-F.Leroy ex A.P.Davis & Rakotonas.
Coffea mufindiensis Hutch. ex Bridson
Coffea myrtifolia (A.Rich. ex DC.) J.-F.Leroy
Coffea namorokensis A.P.Davis & Rakotonas.
Coffea neobridsoniae A.P.Davis
Coffea neoleroyi A.P.Davis
Coffea perrieri Drake ex Jum. & H.Perrier
Coffea pervilleana (Baill.) Drake
Coffea pocsii Bridson
Coffea pseudozanguebariae Bridson
Coffea pterocarpa A.P.Davis & Rakotonas.
Coffea racemosa Lour.
Coffea rakotonasoloi A.P.Davis
Coffea ratsimamangae J.-F.Leroy ex A.P.Davis & Rakotonas.
Coffea resinosa (Hook.f.) Radlk.
Coffea rhamnifolia (Chiov.) Bridson
Coffea richardii J.-F.Leroy
Coffea sahafaryensis J.-F.Leroy
Coffea sakarahae J.-F.Leroy
Coffea salvatrix Swynn. & Philipson
Coffea sambavensis J.-F.Leroy ex A.P.Davis & Rakotonas.
Coffea sapinii (De Wild.) A.P.Davis
Coffea schliebenii Bridson
Coffea semsei (Bridson) A.P.Davis
Coffea sessiliflora Bridson
Coffea stenophylla G.Don
Coffea tetragona Jum. & H.Perrier
Coffea togoensis A.Chev.
Coffea toshii A.P.Davis & Rakotonas.
Coffea travancorensis Wight & Arn.
Coffea tricalysioides J.-F.Leroy
Coffea tsirananae J.-F.Leroy
Coffea vatovavyensis J.-F.Leroy
Coffea vavateninensis J.-F.Leroy
Coffea vianneyi J.-F.Leroy
Coffea vohemarensis A.P.Davis & Rakotonas.
Coffea wightiana Wall. ex Wight & Arn.
Coffea zanguebariae Lour.

References

"Coffee Plant: Arabica and Robusta". Coffee Research Institute. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
"Coffee: World Markets and Trade" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture – Foreign Agricultural Service. 16 June 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
Lashermes, P.; Combes, M.-C.; Robert, J.; Trouslot, P.; D'Hont, A.; Anthony, F.; Charrier, A. (1999). "Molecular characterisation and origin of the Coffea arabica L. genome". Molecular and General Genetics. 261 (2): 259–266. doi:10.1007/s004380050965. PMID 10102360. S2CID 7978085.
Davis, Aaron P.; Govaerts, Rafael; Bridson, Diane M. & Stoffelen, Piet (2006). "An annotated taxonomic conspectus of the genus Coffea (Rubiaceae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 152 (4): 465–512. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2006.00584.x.
"What is Coffee?". www.ncausa.org. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
Petek, Marcos Rafael; Sera, Tumoru; Alteia, Marcos Zorzenon (January 2005). "Genetic variability for frost resistance among Coffea accessions assessed in the field and in a cold chamber". Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 48 (1): 15–21. doi:10.1590/S1516-89132005000100003.
"Coffee bean: commodity factsheet" (PDF). Mintec.
Hamon, Perla; Grover, Corrinne E.; Davis, Aaron P.; Rakotomalala, Jean-Jacques; Raharimalala, Nathalie E.; Albert, Victor A.; Sreenath, Hosahalli L.; Stoffelen, Piet; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Couturon, Emmanuel; Hamon, Serge; de Kochko, Alexandre; Crouzillat, Dominique; Rigoreau, Michel; Sumirat, Ucu; Akaffou, Sélastique & Guyot, Romain (2017). "Genotyping-by-sequencing provides the first well-resolved phylogeny for coffee (Coffea) and insights into the evolution of caffeine content in its species: GBS coffee phylogeny and the evolution of caffeine content". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 109: 351–361. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2017.02.009. PMID 28212875.
Denoeud, France; et al. (5 September 2014). "The coffee genome provides insight into the convergent evolution of caffeine biosynthesis". Science. 345 (6201): 1181–1184. Bibcode:2014Sci...345.1181D. doi:10.1126/science.1255274. PMID 25190796.
Selby, Craig (31 May 2019). "SlimCafe is no longer available". SlimFast.
"Coffeeberry Cascara – Soluble, Sustainable | FutureCeuticals". www.futureceuticals.com.
"Starbucks". stories.starbucks.com.
"Brazilian Cascara". Dwellers Coffee.
"Seven species of wild coffee amongst Kew's haul of new discoveries". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 22 December 2009. Archived from the original on 30 August 2016.
Stoffelen, Piet; Noirot, Michel; Couturon, Emmanuel; Anthony, François (2008). "A new caffeine-free coffee from Cameroon". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 158 (1): 67–72. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2008.00845.x.
Davis, A.P.; Tosh, J.; Ruch, N.; Fay, M.F. (2011). "Growing coffee: Psilanthus (Rubiaceae) subsumed on the basis of molecular and morphological data; implications for the size, morphology, distribution and evolutionary history of Coffea". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 167 (4): 357–377. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2011.01177.x.
Callaway, Ewen (4 September 2014). "Coffee got its buzz by a different route than tea". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.15832. S2CID 168085931.
Pruvot-Woehl, Solène; Krishnan, Sarada; Solano, William; Schilling, Tim; Toniutti, Lucile; Bertrand, Benoit; Montagnon, Christophe (1 April 2020). "Authentication of Coffea arabica Varieties through DNA Fingerprinting and its Significance for the Coffee Sector". Journal of AOAC International. 103 (2): 325–334. doi:10.1093/jaocint/qsz003. ISSN 1060-3271. PMID 33241280. Retrieved 1 April 2021.

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