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Conradina etonia

Conradina etonia (*)

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Lamiales
Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Nepetoideae
Tribus: Mentheae
Genus: Conradina
Species: Conradina etonia


Conradina etonia Kral & McCartney


* Sida; Contributions to Botany. Dallas; Fort Worth, TX 14:393. 1991
* USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. [1]

Conradina etonia is a rare species of shrub in the mint family known by the common name Etonia rosemary. It is endemic to Putnam County, Florida, where it is known from about 8 populations containing fewer than 1000 total individuals.[1][2] It has a specific habitat requirement and the main threat it faces is destruction and degradation of its habitat.[1] It is a federally listed endangered species of the United States.

This plant was discovered in 1990 and described to science as a new species in 1991.[3][4] In 1993 it was added to the endangered species list because it was known from only two locations and both were slated for development.[3] Much of the land was subsequently purchased by the State of Florida, and when more occurrences of the plant were found, the state purchased many of them as well; these lands are mainly located within Etoniah Creek State Forest and Dunns Creek State Park.[1] The state is still attempting to purchase any private land that contains the plant.[5]

This is an aromatic, branching shrub that reaches 1.5 meters in maximum height. The leaves have hairy, veiny, glandular blades with rolled edges. The inflorescence is a cluster of several double-lipped lavender flowers marked with darker streaks and dots.[6] They are attractive to bees and butterflies.[2]

This plant is a member of the Florida scrub ecosystem. It is found alongside sand pines (Pinus clausa), scrub palmetto (Sabal etonia), oaks (Quercus spp.), and wild blueberries (Vaccinium spp.).[1] It is part of the vegetation that is home to the federally threatened Florida Scrub Jay (Aphelocoma coeleruscens).[3]

As do many other Florida scrub plant species, this shrub suffers from lack of the habitat's natural fire regime. It does not tolerate shade and requires open areas to thrive. When fires are prevented in the habitat, it eventually becomes overgrown with brush and tall, woody vegetation that shades out the smaller plants. The plant has been shown to benefit from thinning of the forest as sand pines are harvested. Controlled burns may become part of the recovery and management plans if research indicates them.[1]

The majority of populations occur on protected land today. The Fish and Wildlife Service has recommended the species be downlisted to threatened status.


1. ^ a b c d e USFWS. Conradina etonia Five-year Review. June 2007.
2. ^ a b Conradina etonia. Center for Plant Conservation.
3. ^ a b c USFWS. Endangered or threatened status for five Florida plants. Federal Register July 12, 1993.
4. ^ Kral, R. and R. B. McCartney. (1991). A new species of Conradina (Lamiaceae) from northeastern peninsular Florida. Sida 14:391-398.
5. ^ USFWS. Conradina etonia Species Account. North Florida Ecological Services Office.
6. ^ Conradina etonia. The Nature Conservancy.

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Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License