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Convolvulus arvensis

Convolvulus arvensis (*)

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Solanales
Familia: Convolvulaceae
Genus: Convolvulus
Species: Convolvulus arvensis

Name

Convolvulus arvensis L.

Synonyms

* Convolvulus ambigens House
* Convolvulus arvensis f. purpurascens T.Tacik
* Convolvulus arvensis f. rehmanii T.Tacik
* Convolvulus arvensis subsp. crispatus Franco
* Convolvulus arvensis var. angustatus Ledebour
* Convolvulus arvensis var. crassifolius Choisy
* Convolvulus arvensis var. hastulatus Meisn.
* Convolvulus arvensis var. linearifolius Choisy
* Convolvulus arvensis var. obtusifolius Choisy
* Convolvulus arvensis var. parvifolius Choisy
* Convolvulus arvensis var. prostratus Rouy
* Convolvulus arvensis var. pumilus Choisy
* Convolvulus arvensis var. sagittatus Ledebour
* Convolvulus arvensis var. sagittifolius Fisch.
* Convolvulus arvensis var. sagittifolius Turczaninow nom. illeg.
* Convolvulus arvensis var. villosus Choisy
* Convolvulus auriculatus Desr.
* Convolvulus cherleri Agardh ex Roem. & Schult.
* Convolvulus chinensis Ker Gawler
* Convolvulus corsicus Roem. & Schult.
* Convolvulus fischerianus Petrov
* Convolvulus longipedicellatus Sa'ad
* Convolvulus minor Bubani nom. illeg.
* Convolvulus prostratus F.W.Schmidt nom. illeg.
* Convolvulus sagittifolius (Fisch.) T.Liou & Ling nom. illeg.
* Convolvulus sagittifolius Fisch. ex Choisy nom. illeg.
* Convolvulus sagittifolius Salisbury nom. illeg.
* Lizeron arvensis (L.) Rafinesque
* Lizeron chinensis (Ker Gawl.) Rafinesque
* Strophocaulos arvensis (L.) Small, 1933

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Deutsch: Acker-Winde
Ελληνικά, Κυπριακά: Περικλοκάδα, Περικλοκάδι
English: Field Bindweed
Gàidhlig: Iadh-lus
Svenska: Åkervinda

Convolvulus arvensis (Field Bindweed) is a species of bindweed, native to Europe and Asia. It is a climbing or creeping herbaceous perennial plant growing to 0.5-2 m high. The leaves are spirally arranged, linear to arrowhead-shaped, 2-5 cm long and alternate, with a 1-3 cm petiole. The flowers are trumpet-shaped, 1-2.5 cm diameter, white or pale pink, with five slightly darker pink radial stripes. Flowering occurs in the mid-summer, when white to pale pink, funnel-shaped flowers develop. Flowers are approximately 0.75-1 in. (1.9-2.5 cm) across and are subtended by small bracts. Fruit are light brown, rounded and 1/8 in. (0.3 cm) wide. Each fruit contains 2 seeds that are eaten by birds and can remain viable in the soil for decades.
Flower with red velvet mites

There are two varieties:

* Convolvulus arvensis var. arvensis. Leaves broader.
* Convolvulus arvensis var. linearifolius. Leaves narrower.

Although it produces attractive flowers, it is often unwelcome in gardens as a nuisance weed due to its rapid growth and choking of cultivated plants. It was most likely was introduced into North America as a contaminant in crop seed as early as 1739, as an invasive species. Plants typically inhabit roadsides, grasslands and also along streams.. Its dense mats invade agricultural fields and reduce crop yields; it is estimated that crop losses due to this plant in the United States exceeded US$377 million in the year 1998 alone.[1]

Other common names, mostly obsolete, include lesser bindweed, European bindweed, withy wind (in basket willow crops), perennial morning glory, smallflowered morning glory, creeping jenny, and possession vine. It is called leli in Punjabi.

In one of the tales collected by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, Our Lady's Little Glass, this flower is used by Our Lady to drink wine with when she helps free a wagoner's cart. The story goes on to say that "the little flower is still always called Our Lady's Little Glass."

Ecological Impacts: Field bindweed intertwines and topples native species. It competes with other species for sunlight, moisture and nutrients. It poses threats to restoration efforts and riparian corridors by choking out grasses and forbs. It can decrease habitat biodiversity. It is one of the most serious weeds of agricultural fields in temperate regions of the world. Toxicity: Mildly toxic to grazing animals Control and Management: Field bindweed is difficult to eradicate because the seeds remain viable in soil for up to 20 years. One plant can produce up to 500 seeds. The deep, extensive root system stores carbohydrates and proteins and allows it to sprout repeatedly from fragments and rhizomes following removal of aboveground growth. • Manual- Discing, tilling or hand pulling • Chemical- Apply herbicide 2,4-D or glyphosate (Roundup); applications that trans-locate to roots, before seeds set • Other approaches: Research suggests that shading will help control this species; mulching using paper, straw, wood chips, or black plastic can be effective in certain areas Natural Enemies: Eight fungi and ten arthropods have been found on members of the genus Convlvulus. References: www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/conarv/all.html, www.plantatlas.usf.edu/images.asp?plantID=1755, http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=noxious.cgi Invasive Plants of Asia Origin Established in the US and their Natural Enemies p. 58-59 WSSA-1,000 Weeds of North America: An Identification Guide ELEMENT STEWARDSHIP ABSTRACT- http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs/documnts/convarv.rtf Federal Noxious Weed Disseminules in the US - www.lucidcentral.org/keys/FNW/FNW%20seeds/html/fact%20sheets/Convolvulus%20arvensis.htm

References

1. ^ Coombs, E. M., et al., Eds. (2004). Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the United States. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 151.

* Blanchan, Neltje (2002). Wild Flowers: An Aid to Knowledge of Our Wild Flowers and Their Insect Visitors.. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.
* Flora Europaea: Convolvulus arvensis
* Flora of China: Convolvulus arvensis
* Field Blindweed: Convovulvus arvenis
* PLANTS Profile for Convovulvus arvenis (field blindweed) | USDA PLANTS

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Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License