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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Coreopsideae
Genus: Coreopsis
Sectiones: C. sect. Anathysana – C. sect. Calliopsis – C. sect. Coreopsis – C. sect. Eublepharis – C. sect. Gyrophyllum – C. sect. Leptosyne – C. sect. Pseudoagarista – C. sect. Pugiopappus – C. sect. Silphidium – C. sect. Tuckermannia

Species: C. aristulata – C. auriculata – C. bakeri – C. basalis – C. bigelovii – C. bolanosana – C. breviligulata – C. buchi – C. californica – C. calliopsidea – C. capillacea – C. celendinensis – C. connata – C. crawfordii – C. cyclocarpa – C. davilae – C. delphiniifolia – C. dentifolia – C. dilloniana – C. douglasii – C. fasciculata – C. foliosa – C. gigantea – C. gladiata – C. glaucodes – C. grandiflora – C. guanajuatensis – C. hamiltonii – C. helleborifolia – C. holodasya – C. imbricata – C. integra – C. integrifolia – C. intermedia – C. irmscheriana – C. killipii – C. lanceolata – C. latifolia – C. leavenworthii – C. longula – C. lopez-mirandae – C. macbridei – C. major – C. maritima – C. maysillesii – C. mcvaughii – C. microlepis – C. mollicula – C. multifida – C. nodosa – C. notha – C. nudata – C. nuecensis – C. oaxacensis – C. oblanceolata – C. obovatifolia – C. palmata – C. paludosa – C. palustris – C. parviceps, C. parvifolia – C. peruviana – C. pervelutina – C. petrophila – C. petrophiloides – C. pickeringii – C. piurana – C. poloe – C. polyactis – C. pringlei – C. pubescens – C. pulchra – C. queretarensis – C. rhyacophila – C. rosea – C. rudis – C. senaria – C. sherffii – C. spectabilis – C. stillmanii – C. suaveolens – C. teotepecensis – C. tinctoria – C. townsendii – C. tripteris – C. venusta – C. verticillata – C. woytkowskii
Source(s) of checklist:
Name

Coreopsis L. (1753)

Type species: C. lanceolata L.

Synonyms

Homotypic
Chrysomelea Tausch, Hortus Canal. 1: sub t. 4. 1823.
Coreopsoides Moench, Meth. 594. 1794.

Heterotypic
Acispermum Neck., Elem. Bot. 1: 34, No. 64. 1790, nom. inval.
Type species: non design.
Agarista DC., Prodr. (Candolle) 5: 569. 1836, nom. illeg. non D.Don ex G.Don (1834).
Type species: A. calliopsidea DC.
Calliopsis Rchb., Mag. Aesth. Bot. 1: pl. 70. 1823.
Type species: C. bicolor Rchb.
Pugiopappus A.Gray, Rep. Explor. Railroad Pacific Ocean (Torrey) 4(5): 104. 1857.
Type species: P. bigelovii A.Gray
Tuckermannia Nutt., Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., n. s. 7: 363. 1841.
Type species: T. maritima Nutt.

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 907.
Nuttall, T. 1840. Descriptions of new species and genera of plants in the natural order of the Compositae, collected in a tour across the continent to the Pacific, a residence in Oregon, and a visit to the Sandwich Islands and upper California, during the years 1834 and 1835. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, held at Philadelphia, for promoting useful knowledge, n.s.[new series][ser. 2], 7: 283–453. BHL Reference page.

Links

Hassler, M. 2018. Coreopsis. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Mar. 26. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Coreopsis. Published online. Accessed: Mar. 26 2018.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2018. Coreopsis in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Mar. 26. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2018. Coreopsis. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 Mar. 26.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Coreopsis in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.

Vernacular names
English: Tickseed
suomi: Kaunosilmät
polski: nachyłek
русский: Кореопсис

Coreopsis (/ˌkɒriːˈɒpsɪs/[2]) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. Common names include calliopsis and tickseed, a name shared with various other plants.
Description

These plants range from 46–120 cm (18–47 in) in height. The flowers are usually yellow with a toothed tip, but may also be yellow-and-red bicolor.[3] They have showy flower heads with involucral bracts in two distinct series of eight each, the outer being commonly connate at the base. The flat fruits are small and dry and look like insects.

There are 75–80 species of Coreopsis, all of which are native to North, Central, and South America. The name Coreopsis is derived from the Greek words κόρις (koris), meaning "bedbug", and ὄψις (opsis), meaning "view", referring to the shape of the achene.[4][5]
Uses
Coreopsis, Kansas wildflower

Coreopsis species are a source of nectar and pollen for insects.[3] The species is known to provide food to caterpillars of some Lepidoptera species, including Coleophora acamtopappi. The sunny, summer-blooming, daisy-like flowers are popularly planted in gardens to attract butterflies. Both annual and perennial types are grown in the home garden (USDA Hardiness Zone 7a/6b).[3] In the Mid-Atlantic region, insects such as bees, hover flies, and wasps are often observed visiting the flowers.[3]

All Coreopsis species were designated the state wildflower of the U.S. state of Florida in 1991.[6] In the language of flowers, Coreopsis means to be always cheerful, while Coreopsis arkansa in particular stands for love at first sight.[7]
Taxonomy

Coreopsis is a variable genus closely related to Bidens. In fact, neither Coreopsis nor Bidens, as defined in the 20th century, is strictly monophyletic. Coreopsis is best described as paraphyletic. Previously (1936), Coreopsis was classified into 11 sections and 114 species, but the African species were subsequently reclassified as Bidens, leaving the North and South American species, some 75–80 in all, under Coreopsis. 45 species are in the 11 North American sections, and the remaining 35 are in the South American section Pseudoagarista. The North American species fall into two broad groups, with 5 sections and 12 species in Mexico and North America and the remaining 5 sections and 26 species in Eastern North America. [4]

One group which does seem to be monophyletic consists of temperate species from North America, including five sections of Coreopsis, Bidens coronata and Bidens tripartita, and the genus Thelesperma (five species). [8]
Distribution and habitat

North American Coreopsis can be found in two habitats in the wild, growing along roadsides and open fields throughout the Eastern United States and Canada. In this environment the plant will self-sow.
Cultivation

Coreopsis can grow in a garden as a border plant, or in a container, preferring well-drained soil. Deadheading the flowers ensures it does not become weedy. Using the USDA Hardiness Zones will identify what soil and climate is preferred for different cultivars or species.[9] Notable species found in cultivation are C. grandiflora and C. verticillata, as well as their various cultivars.
Classification
Coreopsis lanceolata
Coreopsis lanceolata
Sections

One classification (GRIN) of the genus consists of eleven sections,[1] shown by cladistic relationships with number of species in parenthesis.[4]

Coreopsis sect. Pseudoagarista (35)

Selected species

See:[10][11]
Section Anathysana

Coreopsis cyclocarpa S.F.Blake

Section Calliopsis

Coreopsis bicolor
Coreopsis leavenworthii Torr. & A.Gray – Leavenworth's tickseed
Coreopsis paludosa M.E.Jones
Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. – plains coreopsis

Section Coreopsis

Coreopsis auriculata L. – lobed tickseed
Coreopsis basalis (A.Dietr.) S.F.Blake – goldenmane tickseed
Coreopsis grandiflora Hogg ex Sweet – large-flowered tickseed
Coreopsis intermedia Sherff – goldenwave tickseed
Coreopsis lanceolata L. – lance coreopsis, lance-leaf tickseed
Coreopsis nuecensis A.Heller – crown tickseed
Coreopsis nuecensoides E.B.Sm. – Rio Grande tickseed
Coreopsis pubescens Elliott – star tickseed
Coreopsis wrightii (A.Gray) H.M.Parker – rock tickseed

Section Electra

Coreopsis cuneifolia Greenm.
Coreopsis mexicana
Coreopsis mutica DC.

Section Eublepharis

Coreopsis floridana E.B.Sm. – Florida tickseed
Coreopsis gladiata Walter – coastalplain tickseed
Coreopsis integrifolia Poir. – fringeleaf tickseed
Coreopsis linifolia Nutt. – Texas tickseed
Coreopsis nudata Nutt. – Georgia tickseed
Coreopsis rosea Nutt. – pink tickseed

Section Gyrophyllum (syn. Palmatae)

Coreopsis delphiniifolia Lam. – larkspurleaf tickseed
Coreopsis major Walter – greater tickseed
Coreopsis palmata Nutt. – stiff tickseed
Coreopsis pulchra F.E.Boynton – woodland tickseed
Coreopsis tripteris L. – tall tickseed
Coreopsis verticillata L. – whorled tickseed

Section Leptosyne

Coreopsis douglasii (DC.) H.M.Hall – Douglas's tickseed
Coreopsis californica (Nutt.) H.Sharsm. – California tickseed
Coreopsis stillmanii (A.Gray) S.F.Blake – Stillman's tickseed

Section Pseudoagarista

South America, 35 species

Coreopsis mcvaughii D.J.Crawford
Coreopsis petrophila A.Gray
Coreopsis petrophiloides B.L.Rob. & Greenm.
Coreopsis rudis (Benth.) Hemsl.

Section Pugiopappus

Coreopsis bigelovii (A.Gray) Voss – Bigelow's tickseed
Coreopsis calliopsidea (DC.) A.Gray – leafstem tickseed
Coreopsis hamiltonii (Elmer) H. Sharsm. – Mount Hamilton tickseed

Section Silphidium

Coreopsis latifolia Michx. – broadleaf tickseed

Section Tuckermannia

Coreopsis gigantea (Kellogg) H.M.Hall – giant coreopsis
Coreopsis maritima (Nutt.) Hook.f. – sea dahlia

Formerly placed here

Bidens alba (L.) DC. (as C. alba L.)
Bidens aristosa (Michx.) Britton (as C. aristosa Michx.)
Bidens aurea (Aiton) Sherff (as C. aurea Aiton)
Bidens mitis (Michx.) Sherff (as C. mitis Michx.)
Bidens trichosperma (Michx.) Britton (as C. trichosperma Michx.)
Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. (as C. formosa Bonato)

Cosmos parviflorus (Jacq.) Pers. (as C. parviflora Jacq.)
Iostephane heterophylla (Cav.) Hemsl. (as C. heterophylla Cav.)
Simsia amplexicaulis (Cav.) Pers. (as C. amplexicaulis Cav.)
Simsia foetida (Cav.) S.F.Blake (as C. foetida Cav.)
Thelesperma filifolium (Hook.) A.Gray (as C. filifolia Hook.)
Verbesina alternifolia (L.) Britton ex Kearney (as C. alternifolia L.)[10]

References

"Genus: Coreopsis L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. January 6, 2011. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
"Coreopsis For the Mid-Atlantic Region Research Report". December 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
Kim, Seung-Chul; Daniel J. Crawford; Mesfin Tadesse; Mary Berbee; Fred R. Ganders; Mona Pirseyedi; Elizabeth J. Esselman (September–July 1999). "ITS sequences and phylogenetic relationships in Bidens and Coreopsis (Asteraceae)". Systematic Botany. 24 (3): 480–493. doi:10.2307/2419701. Check date values in: |date= (help)
Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: A-C. CRC Press. p. 615. ISBN 978-0-8493-2675-2.
Main, Martin B.; Ginger M. Allen. "Florida State Symbols". Electronic Data Information Source. University of Florida IFAS Extension. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
"Language of Flowers - Flower Meanings, Flower Sentiments". www.languageofflowers.com. Archived from the original on 2016-11-24. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
Crawford, D. J.; Mort, M. E. (2005). "Phylogeny of Eastern North American Coreopsis (Asteraceae-Coreopsideae): insights from nuclear and plastid sequences, and comments on character evolution". American Journal of Botany. 92 (2): 330–6. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.2.330. PMID 21652409.
"tickseed". USDA plants website. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
"Species Records of Coreopsis". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on January 20, 2009. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
"Coreopsis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved June 6, 2010.

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