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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Gnaphalieae
Genus: Craspedia
Species: C. adenophora – C. alba – C. alpina – C. aurantia – C. canens – C. coolaminica – C. costiniana – C. crocata – C. cynurica – C. glabrata – C. glauca – C. haplorrhiza – C. incana – C. lamicola – C. lanata – C. leucantha – C. major – C. maxgrayi – C. minor – C. paludicola – C. preminghana – C. robusta – C. rosulata – C. uniflora – C. variabilis
Name

Craspedia G.Forst.

Type species: Craspedia uniflora G.Forst.

Synonyms

Richea Labill.
Pycnosorus Benth.
Cartodium Sol. ex R.Br.
Richea Labill.

References

Forster, G. 1786. Florulae insularum australium prodromus. 8+103 pp. Typis Joann. Christian. Dieterich, Gottingae [Göttingen]. BHL Hathitrust Reference page. : 58.
Rozefelds, A.C.; Buchanan, A.M.; Ford, K.A. 2011: New species of Craspedia (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) from Tasmania and determination of the identity of C. macrocephala Hook. Kanunnah, 4: 93–116. PDF

Links

International Plant Names Index. 2018. Craspedia. Published online. Accessed: January 12 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Craspedia in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 January 12.
Tropicos.org 2018. Craspedia. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 January 12.
Hassler, M. 2018. Craspedia. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 January 12. Reference page.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Craspedia in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: Craspedia G. Forst..

Vernacular names
English: billy buttons and woollyheads

Craspedia is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family commonly known as billy buttons and woollyheads. They are native to Australia and New Zealand where they grow in a variety of habitats from sea level to the Alps. The genus is found in every state of Australia except the Northern Territory. In New Zealand, Craspedia is found from East Cape on the North Island south to Stewart Island. It also occurs on Campbell Island and the Chatham Islands.

Description

Craspedia are rosette-forming herbs with compound capitula borne on erect, unbranched scapes. The capitula are hemispherical to spherical heads of tiny flowers. Most species are perennial; one species is recorded as an annual (Craspedia haplorrhiza). The leaves have considerable variation in form, ranging in colour from white to green, and are often covered in fine hairs.

A closely related genus is Pycnosorus, also often called billy buttons. The genera can be distinguished by the attachment of individual flower heads to the compound heads; in Pycnosorus they are directly attached, and in Craspedia they arise on small stalks.[3] The two genera may actually be monophyletic.[4]
Taxonomy

The genus Craspedia was first described by Johann Georg Adam Forster in 1786.[5] It is placed within the family Asteraceae, tribe Gnaphalieae, with about 23 species.[6][7] The original description included only one species, Craspedia uniflora. Early authors included Pycnosorus, which was later segregated.[8] Molecular phylogeny suggested the two genera were sister clades,[7][8] but there is some evidence that the two genera may in fact be monophyletic.[4]
List of species

According to the Global Compositae Checklist[2]

Craspedia adenophora K.L.McDougall & N.G.Walsh
Craspedia alba J.Everett & Joy Thomps.
Craspedia alpina
Craspedia aurantia J.Everett & Joy Thomps.
Craspedia canens J.Everett & Doust
Craspedia coolaminica J.Everett & Joy Thomps.
Craspedia costiniana J.Everett & Joy Thomps.
Craspedia crocata J.Everett & Joy Thomps.
Craspedia glabrata (Hook.f.) Rozefelds
Craspedia glauca (Labill.) Spreng.
Craspedia incana Allan
Craspedia jamesii J.Everett & Joy Thomps.
Craspedia lamicola J.Everett & Joy Thomps.
Craspedia lanata (Hook.f.) Allan
Craspedia leucantha F.Muell.
Craspedia major (Hook.f.) Allan
Craspedia maxgrayi J.Everett & Joy Thomps.
Craspedia minor (Hook.f.) Allan
Craspedia paludicola J.Everett & Doust
Craspedia pilosa Spreng.
Craspedia preminghana Rozefelds
Craspedia richea Cass.
Craspedia robusta (Hook.f.) Cockayne
Craspedia uniflora G.Forst.
Craspedia variabilis J.Everett & Doust

Etymology

The genus is named for the Greek Kraspedon, meaning an edge, hem or border, because of the woolly fringes of the leaves belonging to the type species.[9]
Biogeography and evolution

There are two centres of diversity in Craspedia, both associated with upland areas. One of these is in the alpine and subalpine zone of Kosciuszko National Park in Australia, where seven species are found. The other centre is a larger area on the northwestern South Island of New Zealand, where several species grow.[7]
Ecology

Species of Craspedia are found in a wide range of habitats from coastal to alpine and are generally plants of open areas, sometimes ruderal. Observations of some Australian species suggest they re-establish well after fire. In Australia Craspedia are commonly found growing in forest habitat, whereas in New Zealand they are generally excluded from closed Nothofagus forests. Craspedia species may occur in dense, widespread populations in mainland Australia, but generally not in New Zealand or Tasmania. Most Australian non-alpine species are found in native grasslands and shrublands associated with Eucalyptus forests. Alpine species occur in Tasmania. In New Zealand, species can be found on coastal sand dunes, wetlands, fellfields, and greywacke rock scree.

Craspedia grow in a wide range of soil types, including sands, gravels, clays, and loams, which are derived from different geologies across a broad rainfall gradient. They appear to be intolerant only of very infertile and acidic soils. This is apparent in the absence of Craspedia from parts of western Tasmania which are characterised by soils derived from pre-Cambrian quartzose rock. These sandy, infertile soils are dominated by a wet heath ecosystem known as buttongrass moorland.
Cultivation

Craspedia is hardy to USDA zones 9–11. It can be propagated by cutting a rosette from a clump, but generally seed is a more reliable and rapid method. Seeds will sprout in days on germination media. Plants are generally self-fertile. The alpine species need regular water and excellent drainage. All species prefer cool roots; surrounding the plants with rock, gravel, or sand provides better conditions. A plant will start growing as a single rosette, and each rosette generally produces one flower stalk.[10] Cultivars include ‘Golf Beauty’.[11][12]
Uses

Craspedia is grown both as an ornamental garden plant, and floriculture for cut flowers and floral arrangements, including dried flowers.[13][10][12] Africa is a source of exports.[14]
References

TPL 2013.
Flann 2009.
Everett & Doust 2019.
Schmidt-Lebuhn 2013.
Forster 1786.
Tropicos 2019.
Ford et al 2007.
Rozefelds et al 2011.
BGSA 2018.
BGW 2015.
Sparks 2017.
GITS 2017.
Interflora 2019.

USDA 2007.

Bibliography
Articles and books

Ford, Kerry A.; Ward, Josephine M.; Smissen, Rob D.; Wagstaff, Steven J.; Breitwieser, Ilse (August 2007). "Phylogeny and Biogeography of Craspedia (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) Based on ITS, ETS and psbA-trnH Sequence Data". Taxon. 56 (3): 783–794. doi:10.2307/25065861. JSTOR 25065861.
Forster, Johann Georg Adam (1786). "Craspedia". Florulae insularum Australium: prodromus (Fl.Ins.Austr.). Gottingae: Joann. Christian Dietrich. p. 58.
Rozefelds, Andrew C.; Buchanan, Alex M.; Ford, Kerry A. (June 2011). "New Species Of Craspedia (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae) From Tasmania And Determination Of The Identity Of C. Macrocephala Hook" (PDF). Kanunnah. 4: 93–116.
Schmidt-Lebuhn, Alexander N. (2013). "Reciprocal monophyly of Craspedia and Pycnosorus (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae) and the problems of using ribosomal DNA at the lowest taxonomic levels". Australian Systematic Botany. 26 (3): 233. doi:10.1071/SB13018. S2CID 86848978.
Schmidt-Lebuhn, Alexander N.; Milner, Kirsty V. (2013). "A quantitative study of morphology in Australian Craspedia (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae)". Australian Systematic Botany. 26 (3): 238. doi:10.1071/SB13017. S2CID 86308341.

Websites

"How to Grow Craspedia - Growing Billy Buttons". Balcony Garden Web. 21 October 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
Sparks, Brian (9 January 2017). "Growing Tips for Craspedia 'Golf Beauty'". Greenhouse Grower. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
"Craspedia Forster f." Cut Flower Exports of Africa. USDA. September 5, 2007. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
The Shade Gardener (12 February 2017). "Craspedia 'Golf Beauty'". Gardening in the Shade. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
Delhaye, Céline (1 August 2018). "Craspedia". Gerbeaud (in French). Société Nationale d'Horticulture de France. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
"Craspedia". Flowers & Plants. Interflora. Retrieved 14 February 2019.

Databases

"Craspedia". Vascular Plants: Australian Plant Name Index (APNI) APC. Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
TPL (2013). "Craspedia". The Plant List Version 1.1. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
Flann, C, ed. (2009). "Craspedia G.Forst". Global Compositae Checklist. Landcare Research, New Zealand. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
Tropicos (2019). "Craspedia G. Forst". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
"Craspedia". Seeds of South Australia. Botanic Gardens of South Australia. 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2019.

Flora

Everett, J.; Doust, A. N. L. "Genus Craspedia". PlantNET FloraOnline. Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
"Craspedia G.Forst". Florabase: the Western Australian flora. Western Australian Herbarium. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
Everett, J. (1999). "Craspedia". Vicflora: Flora of Victoria. Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne. Retrieved 14 February 2019.

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