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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Cichorioideae
Tribus: Cichorieae
Subtribus: Crepidinae
Genus: Crepis
Species: C. achyrophoroides – C. aculeata – C. acuminata – C. aitchisonii – C. albescens – C. albida – C. alfredii – C. alpestris – C. alpina – C. amanica – C. amplexifolia – C. apula – C. arcuata – C. arenaria – C. armena – C. asadbarensis – C. aspera – C. aspromontana – C. atheniensis – C. athoa – C. atribarba – C. aurea – C. auriculifolia – C. bakeri – C. baldaccii – C. balliana – C. barbigera – C. bellidifolia – C. bermejana – C. bertiscea – C. biennis – C. bithynica – C. bodinieri – C. bungei – C. bupleurifolia – C. bursifolia – C. calycina – C. canariensis – C. capillaris – C. carbonaria – C. caucasica – C. chloroclada – C. chondrilloides – C. chrysantha – C. ciliata – C. claryi – C. clausonis – C. commutata – C. connexa – C. conyzifolia – C. coreana – C. crocea – C. cytherea – C. czerepanovii – C. dachhigamensis – C. darvazica – C. demavendi – C. desertorum – C. dianthoseris – C. dioritica – C. dioscoridis – C. divaricata – C. elbrusensis – C. elongata – C. elymaitica – C. erythia – C. faureliana – C. filiformis – C. foetida – C. foliosa – C. fraasii – C. frigida – C. froelichiana – C. gaubae – C. gmelinii – C. gossweileri – C. granatensis – C. guioliana – C. gymnopus – C. hakkarica – C. heldreichiana – C. heterotricha – C. hierosolymitana – C. himalaica – C. hokkaidoensis – C. hookeriana – C. incana – C. insignis – C. intermedia – C. jacquinii – C. juvenalis – C. karakuschensis – C. kashmirica – C. khorassanica – C. koelzii – C. kotschyana – C. kurdica – C. lacera – C. lampsanoides – C. leontodontoides – C. libanotica – C. libyca – C. lignea – C. lomonosovae – C. lybica – C. lyrata – C. macedonica – C. macropus – C. magellensis – C. marschallii – C. meifenggensis – C. merxmuelleri – C. micrantha – C. microtaraxaconoides – C. modocensis – C. mollis – C. monrealensis – C. monticola – C. muhlisii – C. multicaulis – C. multiflora – C. napifera – C. neglecta – C. newii – C. nicaeensis – C. nigrescens – C. nigricans – C. noronhaea – C. novoana – C. occidentalis – C. oporinoides – C. palaestina – C. paludosa – C. pannonica – C. pantocsekii – C. papposissima – C. patula – C. phoenix – C. pleurocarpa – C. pontana – C. porrifolia – C. praemorsa – C. pterothecoides – C. pulchra – C. pulmonariifolia – C. purpurea – C. pusilla – C. pygmaea – C. pyrenaica – C. quercifolia – C. ramosissima – C. reuteriana – C. rhaetica – C. rigescens – C. robertioides – C. rubra – C. rueppellii – C. runcinata – C. sahendii – C. salzmannii – C. sancta – C. schachtii – C. schultzii – C. semnanensis – C. senecioides – C. setosa – C. sibirica – C. sibthorpiana – C. smyrnaea – C. sodiroi – C. sonchifolia – C. sprengelii – C. stojanovii – C. straussii – C. subscaposa – C. suffreniana – C. syriaca – C. tectorum – C. tenerrima – C. terglouensis – C. tingitana – C. triasii – C. trichocephala – C. trichotoma – C. tungusica – C. turcica – C. turcomanica – C. tybakiensis – C. urundica – C. vesicaria – C. viscidula – C. willdenowii – C. willemetioides – C. xylorrhiza – C. zacintha

Name

Crepis L., Sp. Pl.2: 805–808. (1753).

Type species: Crepis biennis L., Sp. Pl. 2: 807. (1753)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Barkhausia Moench, Methodus 537. (1794)
Berinia Brign., Fasc. Rar. Pl. 29. (1810)
Lepicaune Lapeyr., Hist. Pl. Pyrénées 478. (1813)
Soyeria Monnier, Essai Monogr. Hieracium 75. (1829)
Limonoseris Peterm., Fl. Lips. Excurs. 589. (1838)
Hieraciodes Möhring ex. Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 344. (1891)
Hieracioides Vaill., orth. var.
Aegoseris Fourr.
Anisoderis Cass.
Anisoramphus DC.
Anthochytrum Rchb.f.
Aracium Monnier
Barckhausenia K.T.Menke orth. var.
Barckhausia DC. orth. var.
Barkhusenia Hoppe orth. var.
Billotia Sch.Bip.
Brachyderea Cass.
Calliopea D.Don
Catonia Moench
Ceramiocephalum Sch.Bip.
Crepidium Tausch
Crepinia Rchb.
Cymboseris Boiss.
Derouetia Boiss. & Balansa
Endoptera DC.
Gatyona Cass.
Geracium Rchb.
Hapalostephium D.Don
Hostia Moench
Idianthes Desv.
Intybellia Monnier
Intybus Fr.
Lagoseris M.Bieb.
Lepidoseris Fourr.
Limnocrepis Fourr.
Myoseris Link
Wibelia G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Scherb.

References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 805. Reference page.

Links

Kilian N., Hand R. & Raab-Straube E.v. (general editors) 2021. Crepis. Cichorieae Systematics Portal. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Feb 13. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2018. Crepis. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 June 16. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2017. Crepis. Published online. Accessed: Feb. 19 2017.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2017. Crepis in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2017 Feb. 19. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2017. Crepis. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 19 Feb. 2017.

Vernacular names
العربية: سراغة
azərbaycanca: Tayaotu
беларуская: Зубнік
čeština: škarda
dansk: Høgeskæg
Deutsch: Pippau
English: Hawksbeards
eesti: Koeratubakas
فارسی: کفشک, کفشک
suomi: Keltot
français: Crépide, Crépis
日本語: フタマタタンポポ属
ქართული: კიჭკიჭა
한국어: 나도민들레속
lietuvių: Kreisvė
Nederlands: Streepzaad
norsk nynorsk: Haukeskjegg
polski: Pępawa
русский: Скерда
slovenčina: škarda
українська: Скереда
中文: 还阳参属

Crepis, commonly known in some parts of the world as hawksbeard or hawk's-beard (but not to be confused with the related genus Hieracium with a similar common name), is a genus of annual and perennial flowering plants of the family Asteraceae superficially resembling the dandelion, the most conspicuous difference being that Crepis usually has branching scapes with multiple heads (though solitary heads can occur). The genus name Crepis derives from the Greek krepis, meaning "slipper" or "sandal", possibly in reference to the shape of the fruit.[1]

The genus is distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere and Africa,[2] and several plants are known as introduced species practically worldwide.[1] The center of diversity is in the Mediterranean.[2]

Ecology

Crepis species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the broad-barred white moth. The fly Tephritis formosa is known to attack the capitula of this plant.[3]

Seeds of Crepis species are an important food source for some bird species.[4]
Uses

In Crete, Greece the leaves of Crepis commutata which are called glykosyrida (γλυκοσυρίδα) are eaten raw, boiled, steamed or browned in salads. Another two species on the same island, Crepis vesicaria, called kokkinogoula (κοκκινογούλα), lekanida (λεκανίδα) or prikousa (πρικούσα) and a local variety called maryies (μαργιές) or pikrouses (πικρούσες) have both its leaves and tender shoots eaten boiled by the locals.
Secondary metabolites

The genus Crepis is a rich source of costus lactone-type guaianolides,[5] a class of sesquiterpene lactones.

Phenolics found in Crepis include luteolin-type flavonoids and caffeoyl quinic acid derivatives such as chlorogenic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Moreover, Crepis species contain the caffeoyl tartaric acid derivatives caffeoyl tartaric acid and cichoric acid.[6]
Diversity

There are about 200 species in the genus.[1][2]
Crepis tectorum
Crepis pyrenaica
Crepis aurea
Crepis flowers attracts bumblebees

Species include:

Crepis acuminata – tapertip hawksbeard, longleaf hawk's-beard
Crepis alpestris
Crepis alpina
Crepis aspera
Crepis atribarba – dark hawk's-beard, slender hawk's-beard
Crepis aurea – golden hawk's-beard
Crepis bakeri – Baker's hawksbeard
Crepis barbigera – bearded hawk's-beard
Crepis biennis – rough hawksbeard
Crepis bungei
Crepis bursifolia – Italian hawksbit
Crepis capillaris – smooth hawksbeard, green crepis
Crepis conyzifolia
Crepis dioscoridis
Crepis foetida – stinking hawksbeard, roadside hawk's-beard
Crepis incana – pink dandelion
Crepis intermedia – limestone hawksbeard, small-flower hawk's-beard
Crepis kotschyana
Crepis micrantha
Crepis modocensis – Modoc hawksbeard, Siskiyou hawksbeard
Crepis mollis – northern hawksbeard
Crepis monticola – mountain hawksbeard
Crepis nicaeensis – French hawksbeard, Turkish hawksbeard
Crepis occidentalis – largeflower hawksbeard, gray hawk's-beard, western hawk's-beard
Crepis palaestina[7]
Crepis paludosa – marsh hawksbeard
Crepis pannonica – pasture hawksbeard
Crepis phoenix
Crepis pleurocarpa – nakedstem hawksbeard, naked hawk's-beard
Crepis pontana
Crepis praemorsa – leafless hawksbeard
Crepis pulchra – small-flower hawk's-beard
Crepis pyrenaica
Crepis rubra – red hawksbeard, pink hawk's-beard
Crepis runcinata – fiddleleaf hawksbeard
Crepis sancta – holy hawksbeard
Crepis setosa – bristly hawksbeard
Crepis sibirica
Crepis sodiroi
Crepis tectorum – narrow-leaved hawksbeard
Crepis thompsonii
Crepis vesicaria – beaked hawksbeard, dandelion hawk's-beard, weedy hawk's-beard
Crepis zacintha – striped hawksbeard

References

Crepis. Flora of North America.
Enke N., Gemeinholzer B. (2008). "Babcock revisited: New insights into generic delimitation and character evolution in Crepis L. (Compositae: Cichorieae) from ITS and matK sequence data". Taxon. 57 (3): 756–68. doi:10.1002/tax.573008.
White, I.M. (1984). Tephritid Flies (Diptera: Tephritidea). Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects. 10 pt 5a. Royal Entomological Society of London. pp. 134 pp. ISBN 0901546682.
D. L. Buckingham and W. J. Peach (2005). "The influence of livestock management on habitat quality for farmland birds". Animal Science. 81: 199–203. doi:10.1079/asc50700199.[permanent dead link]
Zidorn, C. (2008). "Sesquiterpene lactones and their precursors as chemosystematic markers in the tribe Cichorieae of the Asteraceae". Phytochemistry. 69: 2270–2296. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.06.013. ISSN 0031-9422. PMID 18715600.
Zidorn, C.; et al. (2008). "Phenolics as chemosystematic markers in and for the genus Crepis (Asteraceae, Cichorieae)". Scientia Pharmaceutica (Vienna, Austria). 76: 743–50. doi:10.3797/scipharm.0810-25. ISSN 0036-8709.
http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/taxon/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:200121-1

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