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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Gentianales

Familia: Apocynaceae
Subfamilia: Asclepiadoideae
Tribus: Asclepiadeae
Subtribus: Cynanchinae
Genus: Cynanchum
Species: C. absconditum – C. abyssinicum – C. acidum – C. aculeatum – C. acuminatum – C. acutum – C. adalinae – C. africanum – C. alatum – C. alternilobum – C. altiscandens – C. ambovombense – C. ampanihense – C. analamazaotrense – C. anderssonii – C. andringitrense – C. angavokeliense – C. annularium – C. ansamalense – C. anthonyanum – C. antsiranense – C. appendiculatopsis – C. appendiculatum – C. arabicum – C. arenarium – C. areysianum – C. balense – C. baronii – C. batangense – C. beatricis – C. bernardii – C. bicampanulatum – C. bisinuatum – C. blandum – C. blyttioides – C. bojerianum – C. bosseri – C. boudieri – C. boveanum – C. bowmanii – C. brasiliense – C. brevicoronatum – C. brevipedicellatum – C. bricenoi – C. bungei – C. callialatum – C. carautanum – C. caudigerum – C. celebicum – C. chanchanense – C. chinense – C. chouxii – C. comorense – C. compactum – C. corymbosum – C. crassiantherae – C. crassipedicellatum – C. cristalinense – C. cuatrecasasii – C. cubense – C. cucullatum – C. cyathiforme – C. dalhousiae – C. daltonii – C. danguyanum – C. decaryi – C. decipiens – C. decorsei – C. defilippii – C. descoingsii – C. diazmirandae – C. dimidiatum – C. dombeyanum – C. duclouxii – C. elachistemmoides – C. elegans – C. ellipticum – C. erikseniae – C. erythranthum – C. ethiopicum – C. eurychitoides – C. eurychiton – C. falcatum – C. fasciculiflorum – C. fernandezii – C. fimbricoronum – C. floribundum – C. floriferum – C. foetidum – C. folotsioides – C. formosanum – C. forskaolianum – C. fragrans – C. gentryi – C. gerrardii – C. gilbertii – C. giraldii – C. glomeratum – C. gobicum – C. goertsianum – C. gonoloboides – C. gracillimum – C. graminiforme – C. grandidieri – C. graphistemmatoides – C. guatemalense – C. guehoi – C. hardyi – C. hastifolium – C. haughtii – C. hemsleyanum – C. heteromorphum – C. heydei – C. hickenii – C. hoedimeerium – C. hooperianum – C. humbert-capuronii – C. implicatum – C. insigne – C. insipidum – C. insulanum – C. itremense – C. jaliscanum – C. jaramilloi – C. juliani-marnieri – C. jumellei – C. junciforme – C. kaschgaricum – C. kingdonwardii – C. kintungense – C. kwangsiense – C. lanhsuense – C. lecomtei – C. ledermannii – C. leptolepis – C. leptostephanum – C. leucophellum – C. lineare – C. liukiuense – C. loheri – C. longipedunculatum – C. longipes – C. longirostrum – C. lopezpalaciosii – C. luteifluens – C. lysimachioides – C. maasii – C. macranthum – C. macrolobum – C. madagascariense – C. magale – C. mahafialense – C. mariense – C. mariquitense – C. marnierianum – C. masoalense – C. maximoviczii – C. megalanthum – C. membranaceum – C. menarandrense – C. messeri – C. mevei – C. meyeri – C. microstemma – C. minahassae – C. montevidense – C. moramangense – C. moratii – C. morilloi – C. mossambicense – C. muricatum – C. napiferum – C. natalitium – C. nematostemma – C. nielsenii – C. obovatum – C. obtusifolium – C. officinale – C. orangeanum – C. oresbium – C. otophyllum – C. ovalifolium – C. pachycladon – C. pamirense – C. papillatum – C. paramorum – C. pearsonianum – C. pedunculatum – C. peraffine – C. perrieri – C. petignatii – C. phillipsonianum – C. physocarpum – C. pichi-sermollianum – C. pietrangelii – C. polyanthum – C. praecox – C. prevostii – C. puberulum – C. pulchellum – C. purpureiflorum – C. purpureum – C. pusilum – C. pycnoneuroides – C. racemosum – C. radians – C. radiatum – C. rauhianum – C. rensonii – C. repandum – C. resiliens – C. revoilii – C. riometense – C. rioparanense – C. rossii – C. rostellatum – C. roulinioides – C. rubricoronae – C. rungweense – C. sahyadricum – C. sarcomedium – C. schistoglossum – C. scopulosum – C. sessiliflorum – C. sigridiae – C. sinoracemosum – C. socotranum – C. somaliense – C. staubii – C. stenospira – C. stoloniferum – C. subpaniculatum – C. subtilis – C. suluense – C. sumbawanum – C. surrubriflorum – C. szechuanense – C. tarmense – C. thruppii – C. toliari – C. trollii – C. tsaratananense – C. tuberculatum – C. tunicatum – C. umtalense – C. unguiculatum – C. vanlessenii – C. verrucosum – C. viminale – C. violator – C. virens – C. wallichii – C. warburgii – C. wilfordii – C. wrightianum – C. zeyheri
Name

Cynanchum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 212 (1753)

Type species: Cynanchum acutum L., Sp. Pl. 1: 212 (1753)

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Psanchum Neck., Elem. Bot. 1: 254 (1790), opus utique oppr.
Ziervoglia Neck., Elem. Bot. 1: 254 (1790), opus utique oppr.
Holostemma R.Br., Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc. 1: 42 (1809)
Metaplexis R.Br., Asclepiadeae: 37 (1810)
Sarcostemma R.Br., Asclepiadeae: 39 (1810)
Petalostemma R.Br. in H.Salt, Voy. Abyss., App.: xIiv (1814), nom. nud.
Raphistemma Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar. 2: 50 (1831)
Urostelma Bunge, Enum. Pl. China Bor.: 44 (1833)
Bunburia Harv., Gen. S. Afr. Pl.: 416 (1838)
Cyathella Decne., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2, 9: 332 (1838), non Brot. (1804), fungal name.
Cynoctonum E.Mey., Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 215 (1838), nom. illeg.
Glossonema Decne., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2, 9: 335 (1838)
Odontanthera Wight in Madras J. Lit. Sci. 7: 143. (1838)
Typus: Odontanthera reniformis Wight in Madras J. Lit. Sci. 7: 143. (1838)
Pentarrhinum E.Mey., Comm. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 199 (1838)
Pycnoneurum Decne., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2, 9: 340 (1838)
Steinheilia Decne. in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2, 9: 339. (1838)
Typus: Steinheilia radians (Forssk.) Decne. in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2, 9: 339. (1838) (≡ Asclepias radians Forssk.)
Exostegia Bojer ex Decne. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 8: 528 (1844)
Roulinia Decne. in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 8: 516 (1844), nom. illeg.
Monostemma Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 21(1): 255 (1848)
Symphyoglossum Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 21(1): 255 (1848)
Mastostigma Stocks, Hooker's Icon. Pl. 9: t. 863 (1852)
Schizocorona F.Muell., Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 5: 107 (1853)
Sarcocyphula Harv., Thes. Cap. 2: 58 (1863)
Metalepis Griseb., Cat. Pl. Cub.: 179 (1866)
Graphistemma (Chapm. ex Benth.) Champ. ex Benth. in G.Bentham & J.D.Hooker, Gen. Pl. 2: 760 (1876)
Adelostemma Hook.f., Hooker's Icon. Pl. 15: 22 (1883)
Telminostelma E.Fourn. in C.F.P.von Martius & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Bras. 6(4): 218 (1885)
Vohemaria Buchenau, Abh. Naturwiss. Vereins Bremen 10: 372 (1889)
Perianthostelma Baill., Hist. Pl. 10: 247 (1890)
Prosopostelma Baill., Hist. Pl. 10: 247 (1890)
Flanagania Schltr., Beibl. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 10 (1894)
Gilgia Pax, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 80 (1894)
Platykeleba N.E.Br., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1895: 250 (1895)
Sarmasikia Bubani, Fl. Pyren. 1: 550 (1897)
Rouliniella Vail, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 29: 662 (1902)
Decanemopsis Costantin & Gallaud, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 12: 418 (1906)
Folotsia Costantin & Bois, Compt. Rend. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. 147: 258 (1908)
Voharanga Costantin & Bois, Compt. Rend. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. 147: 259 (1908)
Drepanostemma Jum. & H.Perrier, Rev. Gén. Bot. 23: 256 (1911)
Mahafalia Jum. & H.Perrier, Rev. Gén. Bot. 23: 255 (1911)
Aphanostelma Schltr. in A.A.H.Léveillé, Fl. Kouy-Tchéou: 39 (1914)
Nematostemma Choux, Compt. Rend. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. 172: 1310 (1921)
Dicarpophora Speg., Physis (Buenos Aires) 8: 269 (1926)
Karimbolea Desc., Cactus (Paris) 68-69: 77 (1960)
Seshagiria Ansari & Hemadri, Indian Forester 97: 126 (1971)
Sichuania M.G.Gilbert & P.T.Li, Novon 5: 12 (1995)

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 212.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2017. Cynanchum in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2017 July 4. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2017. Cynanchum. Published online. Accessed: Sept. 8 2017.
Khanum, R., Surveswaran, S., Meve, U. & Liede-Schumann, S. 2016. Cynanchum (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae): A pantropical Asclepiadoid genus revisited. Taxon 65(3): 467–486. DOI: 10.12705/653.3 ResearchGate Reference page.
Meve, U. & Liede-Schumann, S. 2012. Taxonomic dissolution of Sarcostemma (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae). Kew Bulletin 67(4): 751–758. DOI: 10.1007/s12225-012-9384-2 ResearchGate Reference page.

Vernacular names
English: Dog-strangling Vine
suomi: Hukankierrot
中文: 白前屬

Cynanchum is a genus of about 300 species including some swallowworts, belonging to the family Apocynaceae. The taxon name comes from Greek kynos (meaning "dog") and anchein ("to choke"), hence the common name for several species is dog-strangling vine. Most species are non-succulent climbers or twiners. There is some evidence of toxicity.[2]

Morphology

These plants are perennial herbs or subshrubs, often growing from rhizomes. The leaves are usually oppositely arranged and sometimes are borne on petioles. The inflorescences and flowers come in a variety of shapes.

Like other species of the milkweed family, these plants bear follicles, which are podlike dry fruits.
Distribution

These species are found throughout the tropics and subtropics. Several species also grow in temperate regions.
Importance

The root of Cynanchum atratum is used in Chinese traditional medicine and called Bai wei. Several other species had traditional Chinese medicinal uses.

Cynanchum louiseae (black swallowwort) and Cynanchum rossicum (pale swallowwort) are troublesome noxious weeds in parts of North America.[3][4]
Classification

Cynanchum as defined in the late 20th century (to include about 400 species) is polyphyletic and is being broken up. Species are being moved to genera including Orthosia, Pentarrhinum, and Vincetoxicum, with a group of mostly Old World species staying in Cynanchum,[5][6] and old genera such as Raphistemma brought to synonymy.
Species

Species include:[7]

Cynanchum absconditum Liede
Cynanchum abyssinicum Decne.
Cynanchum acidum (Roxb.) Oken
Cynanchum aculeatum (Desc.) Liede & Meve
Cynanchum acuminatum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Schult.
Cynanchum acutum L.
Cynanchum adalinae (K.Schum.) K.Schum.
Cynanchum africanum (L.) Hoffmanns.
Cynanchum alatum Wight & Arn.
Cynanchum alternilobum (M.G.Gilbert & P.T.Li) Liede & Khanum
Cynanchum altiscandens K.Schum.[8]
Cynanchum ambovombense (Liede) Liede & Meve
Cynanchum ampanihense Jum. & H.Perrier
Cynanchum analamazaotrense Choux
Cynanchum anderssonii Morillo
Cynanchum andringitrense Choux
Cynanchum angavokeliense Choux
Cynanchum annularium (Roxb.) Liede & Khanum
Cynanchum ansamalense Liede
Cynanchum anthonyanum Hand.-Mazz.
Cynanchum antsiranense (Meve & Liede) Liede & Meve
Cynanchum appendiculatopsis Liede
Cynanchum appendiculatum Choux
Cynanchum arabicum (Bruyns & P.I.Forst.) Meve & Liede
Cynanchum arenarium Jum. & H.Perrier
Cynanchum areysianum (Bruyns) Meve & Liede
Cynanchum auriculatum
Cynanchum arizonicum – Arizona swallow-wort or Arizona climbing milkweed
Cynanchum balense Liede
Cynanchum baronii Choux
Cynanchum batangense P.T.Li
Cynanchum beatricis Morillo
Cynanchum bernardii Morillo
Cynanchum bicampanulatum M.G.Gilbert & P.T.Li
Cynanchum bisinuatum Jum. & H.Perrier
Cynanchum blandum (Decne.) Sundell
Cynanchum blyttioides Liede
Cynanchum bojerianum (Decne.) Choux
Cynanchum bosseri Liede
Cynanchum boudieri H.Lév. & Vaniot
Cynanchum boveanum Decne.
Cynanchum bowmanii S.T.Blake
Cynanchum brasiliense (Morillo) Liede
Cynanchum brevicoronatum M.G.Gilbert & P.T.Li
Cynanchum brevipedicellatum (P.I.Forst.) Liede & Meve
Cynanchum bricenoi Morillo
Cynanchum bungei Decne.
Cynanchum callialatum Buch.-Ham. ex Wight
Cynanchum carautanum (Fontella & E.A.Schwarz) Morillo
Cynanchum caudigerum R.W.Holm
Cynanchum celebicum Schltr.
Cynanchum chanchanense Morillo
Cynanchum chinense R.Br.
Cynanchum chouxii Liede & Meve
Cynanchum comorense Choux
Cynanchum compactum Choux
Cynanchum corymbosum Wight
Cynanchum crassiantherae Liede
Cynanchum crassipedicellatum Meve & Liede
Cynanchum cristalinense Morillo
Cynanchum cuatrecasasii Morillo
Cynanchum cubense (A.Rich.) Woodson
Cynanchum cucullatum N.E.Br.
Cynanchum cyathiforme (Sundell) W.D.Stevens
Cynanchum dalhousiae Wight
Cynanchum daltonii (Decne.) Liede & Meve
Cynanchum danguyanum Choux
Cynanchum decaryi Choux
Cynanchum decipiens C.K.Schneid.
Cynanchum decorsei (Costantin & Gallaud) Liede & Meve
Cynanchum defilippii Delponte
Cynanchum descoingsii Rauh
Cynanchum diazmirandae Morillo
Cynanchum dimidiatum (Hassk.) Boerl.
Cynanchum dombeyanum (Decne.) Morillo
Cynanchum duclouxii M.G.Gilbert & P.T.Li
Cynanchum elachistemmoides (Liede & Meve) Liede & Meve
Cynanchum elegans (Benth.) Domin
Cynanchum ellipticum (Harv.) R.A.Dyer
Cynanchum erikseniae Morillo
Cynanchum erythranthum Jum. & H.Perrier
Cynanchum ethiopicum Liede & Khanum
Cynanchum eurychitoides (K.Schum.) K.Schum.
Cynanchum eurychiton (Decne.) K.Schum.
Cynanchum falcatum Hutch. & E.A.Bruce
Cynanchum fasciculiflorum Morillo
Cynanchum fernandezii Morillo
Cynanchum fimbricoronum P.T.Li
Cynanchum floribundum R.Br.
Cynanchum floriferum Liede & Meve
Cynanchum foetidum (Cav.) Kunth
Cynanchum folotsioides Liede & Meve
Cynanchum forskaolianum Meve & Liede
Cynanchum fragrans (Wall.) Liede & Khanum
Cynanchum gentryi (Morillo) Liede
Cynanchum gerrardii (Harv.) Liede
Cynanchum gilbertii Liede
Cynanchum giraldii Schltr.
Cynanchum glomeratum Bosser
Cynanchum gobicum Grubov
Cynanchum goertsianum Morillo
Cynanchum gonoloboides Schltr.
Cynanchum gracillimum Wall. ex Wight
Cynanchum graminiforme Liede
Cynanchum grandidieri Liede & Meve
Cynanchum graphistemmatoides Liede & Khanum
Cynanchum guatemalense Dugand
Cynanchum guehoi Bosser
Cynanchum hardyi Liede & Meve
Cynanchum hastifolium K.Schum.
Cynanchum haughtii Woodson
Cynanchum hemsleyanum (Oliv.) Liede & Khanum
Cynanchum heteromorphum Vatke
Cynanchum heydei Hook.f.
Cynanchum hickenii Malme
Cynanchum hoedimeerium Bakh.f.
Cynanchum hooperianum (Blume) Liede & Khanum
Cynanchum humbert-capuronii Liede & Meve
Cynanchum implicatum (Jum. & H.Perrier) Jum. & H.Perrier
Cynanchum insigne (N.E.Br.) Liede & Meve
Cynanchum insipidum (E.Mey.) Liede & Khanum
Cynanchum insulanum(Hance) Hemsl.
Cynanchum itremense Liede
Cynanchum jaliscanum (Vail) Woodson
Cynanchum jaramilloi Morillo
Cynanchum juliani-marnieri Desc.
Cynanchum jumellei Choux
Cynanchum junciforme (Decne.) Liede
Cynanchum kaschgaricum Y.X.Liou
Cynanchum kingdonwardii M.G.Gilbert & P.T.Li
Cynanchum kintungense Tsiang
Cynanchum kwangsiense Tsiang & H.D.Zhang
Cynanchum laeve - honeyvine
Cynanchum lanhsuense T.Yamaz.
Cynanchum lecomtei Choux
Cynanchum ledermannii Schltr.
Cynanchum leptolepis (Benth.) Domin
Cynanchum leptostephanum Diels
Cynanchum leucophellum Diels
Cynanchum lineare N.E.Br.
Cynanchum liukiuense Warb.
Cynanchum loheri Schltr.
Cynanchum longipedunculatum M.G.Gilbert & P.T.Li
Cynanchum longipes N.E.Br.
Cynanchum longirostrum (K.Schum.) W.D.Stevens
Cynanchum lopezpalaciosii Morillo
Cynanchum luteifluens (Jum. & H.Perrier) Desc.
Cynanchum lysimachioides Y.Tsiang & P.T.Li
Cynanchum maasii Morillo
Cynanchum macranthum Jum. & H.Perrier
Cynanchum macrolobum Jum. & H.Perrier
Cynanchum madagascariense K.Schum.
Cynanchum magale Buch.-Ham. ex Dillwyn
Cynanchum mahafalense Jum. & H.Perrier
Cynanchum mariense (Meve & Liede) Liede & Meve
Cynanchum mariquitense Mutis
Cynanchum marnieranum Rauh
Cynanchum masoalense Choux
Cynanchum maximoviczii Pobed.
Cynanchum megalanthum M.G.Gilbert & P.T.Li
Cynanchum membranaceum (Liede & Meve) Liede & Meve
Cynanchum menarandrense Jum. & H.Perrier
Cynanchum mevei Liede
Cynanchum meyeri (Decne.) Schltr.
Cynanchum microstemma (Turcz.) Morillo
Cynanchum minahassae Schltr.
Cynanchum montevidense Spreng.
Cynanchum moramangense Choux
Cynanchum moratii Liede
Cynanchum morilloi P.T.Li
Cynanchum mossambicense K.Schum.
Cynanchum muricatum (Blume) Boerl.
Cynanchum napiferum Choux
Cynanchum natalitium Schltr.
Cynanchum nematostemma Liede
Cynanchum nielsenii Morillo
Cynanchum obovatum (Decne.) Choux
Cynanchum obtusifolium L.f.
Cynanchum officinale (Hemsl.) Tsiang & H.D.Zhang
Cynanchum orangeanum (Schltr.) N.E.Br.
Cynanchum oresbium (Bruyns) Goyder
Cynanchum otophyllum C.K.Schneid.
Cynanchum ovalifolium Wight
Cynanchum pachycladon Choux
Cynanchum pamirense Tsiang & H.D.Zhang
Cynanchum papillatum Choux
Cynanchum paramorum Morillo
Cynanchum pearsonianum Liede & Meve
Cynanchum pedunculatum R.Br.
Cynanchum peraffine Woodson
Cynanchum perrieri Choux
Cynanchum petignatii Liede & Rauh
Cynanchum phillipsonianum Liede & Meve
Cynanchum physocarpum Schltr.
Cynanchum pichi-sermollianum (Raimondo & Fici) Liede & Khanum
Cynanchum pietrangelii Morillo
Cynanchum polyanthum K.Schum.
Cynanchum praecox Schltr. ex S.Moore
Cynanchum prevostii Morillo
Cynanchum puberulum F.Muell. ex Benth.
Cynanchum pulchellum (Wall.) Liede & Khanum
Cynanchum purpureiflorum Morillo
Cynanchum purpureum (Pall.) K.Schum.
Cynanchum pusilum Grubov
Cynanchum pycnoneuroides Choux
Cynanchum racemosum (Jacq.) Jacq.
Cynanchum radians (Forssk.) Lam.
Cynanchum radiatum Jum. & H.Perrier
Cynanchum rauhianum Desc.
Cynanchum rensonii (Pittier) Woodson
Cynanchum repandum (Decne.) K.Schum.
Cynanchum resiliens (B.R.Adams & R.W.K.Holland) Goyder
Cynanchum revoilii (Franch.) Khanum & Liede
Cynanchum riometense Sundell
Cynanchum rioparanense Sundell
Cynanchum rossii Rauh
Cynanchum rostellatum (Turcz.) Liede & Khanum
Cynanchum roulinioides (E.Fourn.) Rapini
Cynanchum rubricoronae Liede
Cynanchum rungweense Bullock
Cynanchum sahyadricum (Ansari & Hemadri) Liede & Khanum
Cynanchum sarcomedium Meve & Liede
Cynanchum schistoglossum Schltr.
Cynanchum scopulosum Bosser
Cynanchum sessiliflorum (Decne.) Liede
Cynanchum sigridiae Meve & M.Teissier
Cynanchum sinoracemosum M.G.Gilbert & P.T.Li
Cynanchum socotranum (Lavranos) Meve & Liede
Cynanchum somaliense (N.E.Br.) N.E.Br.
Cynanchum staubii Bosser
Cynanchum stauntonii
Cynanchum stenospira K.Schum.
Cynanchum stoloniferum (B.R.Adams & R.W.K.Holland) Goyder
Cynanchum subpaniculatum Woodson
Cynanchum subtilis Liede
Cynanchum suluense Schltr.
Cynanchum sumbawanum Warb.
Cynanchum surrubriflorum W.D.Stevens
Cynanchum szechuanense Tsiang & H.D.Zhang
Cynanchum tamense Morillo
Cynanchum thruppii (Oliv.) Khanum & Liede
Cynanchum toliari Liede & Meve
Cynanchum trollii Liede & Meve
Cynanchum tsaratananense Choux
Cynanchum tuberculatum (Blume) Boerl.
Cynanchum tunicatum (Retz.) Alston
Cynanchum umtalense Liede
Cynanchum unguiculatum (Britton) Markgr.
Cynanchum utahense – Utah swallow-wort or Utah vine milkweed
Cynanchum vanlessenii (Lavranos) Goyder
Cynanchum verrucosum (Desc.) Liede & Meve
Cynanchum viminale (L.) L.
Cynanchum violator R.W.Holm
Cynanchum virens (E.Mey.) D.Dietr.
Cynanchum wallichii Wight
Cynanchum warburgii Schltr.
Cynanchum wilfordii (Maxim.) Hook.f.
Cynanchum zeyheri Schltr.

References

"Cynanchum L." Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
"Plants for a Future Database".
NPS Alien Plants Fact Sheet
Krishna Ramanujan (2014) "Invasive vines swallow up New York’s natural areas." Cornell Chronicle, April 23, 2014.
Alan S. Weakley (April 2008). "Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, and Georgia, and Surrounding Areas".
Sigrid Liede and Angelika Tauber (Oct–Dec 2002). "Circumscription of the Genus Cynanchum (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae)". Systematic Botany. 27 (4): 789–800. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-27.4.789. JSTOR 3093924.
"Cynanchum L." Plants of the World Online. The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. n.d. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
Bussmann R. W.; et al. (2006). "Plant use of the Maasai of Sekenani Valley, Maasai Mara, Kenya". J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2: 22. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-22. PMC 1475560. PMID 16674830.

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