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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Poaceae
Subfamilia: Chloridoideae
Tribus: Cynodonteae
Subtribus: Eleusininae
Genus: Cynodon
Species: C. aethiopicus – C. ambiguus – C. barberi – C. convergens – C. coursii – C. dactylon – C. incompletus – C. nlemfuensis – C. plectostachyus – C. prostratus – C. radiatus – C. simonii – C. tenellus – C. transvaalensis
Nothospecies: C. × magennisii
Name

Cynodon Rich. in C.H. Persoon, Syn. Pl. 1: 85 (1805).

Type species: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 85. (1805).

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Capriola Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 31 (1763).
Dactilon Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauphiné 2: 69 (1787).
Fibichia Koeler, Descr. Gramin.: 308 (1802).
Dactylon Roem. & Schult., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2: 411 (1817), pro syn.
Dactylus Asch., Fl. Brandenburg 1: 810 (1864).
Brachyachne (Benth.) Stapf, Hooker's Icon. Pl. 31: t. 3099 (1922) pro parte.

References
Primary references

Persoon, C.H. 1805. Synopsis plantarum, seu enchiridium botanicum, complectens enumerationem systematicam specierum hucusque cognitarum. Pars prima. XII+546 pp. Apud Carol. Frid. Cramerum, Parisiis Lutetiorum [Paris]; Apud J.G. Cottam, Tubingae [Tübingen]. BHL Biblioteca Digital Reference page. : 85.

Additional references

Peterson, P.M., Romaschenko, K. & Herrera-Arrieta, Y. 2015. A molecular phylogeny and classification of the Eleusininae with a new genus, Micrachne (Poaceae: Chloridoideae: Cynodonteae). Taxon 64(3): 445–467. DOI: 10.12705/643.5 Full text (with link to PDF). Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Cynodon in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2021 Sept. 21. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2013. Cynodon. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Sept. 21.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Cynodon. Published online. Accessed: 21. Sept. 2013.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2019. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Cynodon (Poaceae). .

Vernacular names
English: Bermuda Grass
suomi: Varvasheinät

Cynodon is a genus of plants in the grass family.[2] It is native to warm temperate to tropical regions of the Old World, as well as being cultivated and naturalized in the New World and on many oceanic islands.

The genus name comes from Greek words meaning "dog-tooth". The genus as a whole as well as its species are commonly known as Bermuda grass or dog's tooth grass.

Species[1][3][4]

Cynodon aethiopicus - Africa; introduced in South Africa, Queensland, Hawaii, Texas
Cynodon barberi - India, Sri Lanka
Cynodon coursii - Madagascar
Cynodon dactylon - Old World; introduced in New World and on various islands
Cynodon incompletus - southern Africa; introduced in Australia, Argentina
Cynodon × magennisii - Limpopo, Gauteng, Mpumalanga; introduced in Texas, Alabama
Cynodon nlemfuensis - Africa from Ethiopia to Zimbabwe; introduced in South Africa, West Africa, Saudi Arabia, Philippines, Texas, Florida, Mesoamerica, northern South America, various islands
Cynodon plectostachyus - Chad, East Africa; introduced in Madagascar, Bangladesh, Mexico, West Indies, Paraguay, northeastern Argentina, Texas, California
Cynodon radiatus - China, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, Madagascar; introduced in Australia, New Guinea
Cynodon transvaalensis - South Africa, Lesotho; introduced in other parts of Africa plus in scattered locales in Iran, Australia, and the Americas

Formerly included[1]

Several species now considered better suited to other genera, namely Arundo, Bouteloua, Brachyachne, Chloris, Cortaderia, Ctenium, Digitaria, Diplachne, Eleusine, Enteropogon, Eragrostis, Eustachys, Gynerium, Leptochloa, Molinia, Muhlenbergia, Phragmites, Poa, Spartina, Tridens, and Trigonochloa.

Cynodon abyssinicus - Eragrostis tef
Cynodon altior - Brachyachne tenella
Cynodon amabilis - Eragrostis amabilis
Cynodon americanus - Bouteloua americana
Cynodon brizoides - Eragrostis capensis
Cynodon caeruleus - Molinia caerulea
Cynodon carolinianus - Tridens flavus
Cynodon ciliaris - Brachyachne ciliaris
Cynodon convergens - Brachyachne convergens
Cynodon coracanus - Eleusine coracana
Cynodon cruciatus - Chloris cruciata
Cynodon curtipendulus - Bouteloua curtipendula
Cynodon cynosuroides - Spartina cynosuroides
Cynodon diffusus - Muhlenbergia schreberi
Cynodon domingensis - Leptochloa virgata
Cynodon donax - Arundo donax
Cynodon elongatus - Enteropogon dolichostachyus
Cynodon fascicularis - Diplachne fusca subsp. fascicularis
Cynodon filiformis - Leptochloa panicea
Cynodon gracilis - Trigonochloa uniflora
Cynodon gynerium - Gynerium sagittatum
Cynodon indicus - Eleusine indica
Cynodon junceus - Bouteloua juncea
Cynodon melicoides - Bouteloua curtipendula
Cynodon monostachyus - Ctenium aromaticum
Cynodon neesii - Leptochloa neesii
Cynodon petitii - Phragmites australis subsp. isiacus
Cynodon phragmites - Phragmites australis
Cynodon pilosissimus - Cortaderia pilosa
Cynodon pilosus - Digitaria stricta
Cynodon polystachyus - Leptochloa neesii
Cynodon praecox - Digitaria sanguinalis
Cynodon procumbens - Chondrosum simplex
Cynodon pungens - Spartina maritima
Cynodon setigerus - Digitaria setigera
Cynodon sudeticus - Poa chaixii
Cynodon tenellus - Brachyachne tenella
Cynodon tener - Eustachys tenera
Cynodon ternatus - Digitaria ternata
Cynodon virgatus Willd. - Leptochloa chinensis
Cynodon virgatus (L.) Raspail - Leptochloa virgata
Cynodon virgatus Nees ex Steud. - Leptochloa neesii

Cultivation and uses

Some species, most commonly C. dactylon, are grown as lawn grasses in warm temperate regions, such as the Sunbelt area of the United States where they are valued for their drought tolerance compared to most other lawn grasses. Propagation is by rhizomes, stolons, or seeds. In some cases it is considered to be a weed; it spreads through lawns and flower beds, where it can be difficult to kill with herbicides without damaging other grasses or plants. It is difficult to pull out because the rhizomes and stolons break readily, and then re-grow.

It is also noted for its common use on the surface of greens on golf courses, as well as football and baseball playing fields.

Recent news reports claim that a Bermuda-derived F1 hybrid called Tifton 85 suddenly started producing cyanide and killed a cattle herd in Texas, USA.[5][6][7]
References

Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Richard, Louis Claude Marie, in Persoon, Christiaan Hendrik. 1805. Synopsis Plantarum 1: 85
The Plant List search for Cynodon
Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
CBS News (June 23, 2012). "Grass linked to Texas cattle deaths". CBS News. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
Glenn W. Burton; Roger N. Gates; Gary M. Hill. "TIFTON 85 BERMUDAGRASS". University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
T.L. Provin; J.L. Pitt. "Nitrates and Prussic Acid in Forages" (PDF). Texas A&M University System. Retrieved June 24, 2012.

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