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Dianthus armeria

Dianthus armeria (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales

Familia: Caryophyllaceae
Tribus: Caryophylleae
Genus: Dianthus
Species: Dianthus armeria
Name

Dianthus armeria L. (1753)
Synonyms

Caryophyllus armerius (L.) Moench
Cylichnanthus maculatus Dulac
Dianthus armeria f. alba Stritch
Dianthus armeria subsp. armeriastrum (Wolfner) Velen.
Dianthus armeria f. glabrissimus A. Sigunov
Dianthus armeriastrum Wolfner
Dianthus carolinianus Walt.
Dianthus epirotus Halácsy
Dianthus hirsutus Lam.
Dianthus hirtus Lam.
Dianthus hybridus Schmidt ex Tausch
Dianthus pratensis S.F.Gray
Dianthus pseudarmeria Wierzb. ex Schur
Dianthus pseudocorymbosus Velen.
Dianthus villosus Gilib.
Diosanthos armerium (L.) St.Lag.
Silene vaga E.H.L.Krause

Hybrids

D. × aschersonii
Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Albania, Austria, Belgium, England, Bulgaria, Corsica, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Switzerland, Netherlands, Spain, Andorra, Portugal, Hungary, Italy, Croatia, Serbia & Kosovo, Slovenia, Bosnia & Hercegovina, Serbia, Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Sardinia, Sweden, C- & E-European Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Crimea, Lithuania
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Northern Caucasus, Georgia [Caucasus], Armenia, Azerbaijan (Talysh),Turkey (N-Anatolia), European Turkey, Iran (N-Iran)

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 410. Reference page.

Links

Hassler, M. 2019. Dianthus armeria. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Sep 05. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Dianthus armeria in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Sep 05. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Dianthus armeria. Published online. Accessed: Sep 05 2019.
Tropicos.org 2019. Dianthus armeria. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Sep 05.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Dianthus armeria in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 08-Apr-12.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Гваздзік армерыяпадобны
Deutsch: Raue Nelke, Büschel-Nelke
English: Deptford pink
español: Clavel armeria
suomi: Mykeröneilikka
français: Œillet arméria, Œillet velu
hornjoserbsce: Ćećikata nalika
italiano: Garofano peloso, Viola de lepre
日本語: ノハラナデシコ
lietuvių: Gauruotasis gvazdikas
Nederlands: Ruige anjer, Vliegenet
polski: Goździk kosmaty
slovenščina: srhki klinček, srhki nageljček
svenska: Knippnejlika

Dianthus armeria, the Deptford pink or grass pink,[1] is a species of Dianthus ("pink") native to most of Europe, from Portugal north to southern Scotland and southern Finland, and east to Ukraine and the Caucasus.[2][3][4] It is naturalised in North America.[1]

Description

Dianthus armeria is an annual or biennial plant which grows to about 60 centimetres (2.0 ft) tall and has a very slender appearance. It has widely spaced, paired leaves, and above these it branches rather sparingly.[5] At the ends of the stems there are short-stalked or stalkless clusters of deep-pink flowers that are surrounded by erect, hairy, leaf-like bracts. These can also be located laterally. Each flower is 8 to 13 millimetres (0.31 to 0.51 in) in diameter and has 5 lanceolate petals, each with irregular serrated edges and small white spotting on the upper surface.[6] The leaves are hairy, dark green in colour and slim in shape.[7]
Distribution

Dianthus armeria is native to Europe, where it is widespread as far north as 60°N in Scandinavia, extending eastwards to Armenia and the Caucasus, and as far south as Spain and Sicily. It has been introduced to North America, where it is now naturalised and is widespread.[6] In Britain it is now extirpated as a native species from Scotland and is known from a few dozen sites in England and 4-5 sites in Wales, including a nature reserve in Flintshire, a quarry near Pontypridd in Rhondda Cynon Taf, near a reservoir in the vicinity of Port Talbot and along a farm track on a site near Llanelli.[8]
Habitat and ecology

Dianthus armeria is a species of open and periodically disturbed sites. It is normally an annual but can be biennial or a short-lived perennial. New leaf rosettes form at the base of old plants from buds located on their roots, demonstrating that this species is in fact a short-lived perennial and has a life-span of less than two and a half years.[6] It flowers from July to September.[7] Its flowers are scentless and do not appear to be insect pollinated often, with self-pollination the norm. Each plant gradually releases around 400 seeds from their pods; however, some plants may hold a small fraction of the seeds they produce over winter.[6] It closes its blooms in the late afternoons.[7]
Cultivation and uses
Seeds of Dianthus armeria

It is widely grown as an ornamental plant in gardens. Populations have been introduced to and have become naturalised in New Zealand and much of North America.[9]
Name

The name Deptford pink was coined in the 17th century by naturalist Thomas Johnson, who described a pink flower growing in Deptford in South-East London. However, it is very likely that Johnson was actually describing the related maiden pink, and it is unlikely that this species has grown in the area it is named after since the city of London was built.[10]
References

Dickinson, T.; Metsger, D.; Bull, J.; & Dickinson, R. (2004) ROM Field Guide to Wildflowers of Ontario. Toronto:Royal Ontario Museum, p. 234.
Flora Europaea: Dianthus armeria
Den Virtuella Floran: Dianthus armeria (in Swedish, with maps)
Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2
"Deptford Pink Dianthus armeria". Illinois Wild Flowers. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
"Dianthus armeria L." (PDF). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
"Deptford Pink Dianthus armeria". Plantlife. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
"Deptford Pink's Flintshire site sees 14-fold increase". BBC News. 30 August 2010. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
"Dianthus armeria L. Deptford pink". USDA. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
"Deptford Pink". The Wildlife Trusts. Retrieved 24 March 2020.

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