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Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Liliopsida
Subclassis: Liliidae
Ordo: Asparagales
Familia: Ruscaceae
Genus: Dracaena
Species: D. acaulis - D. acutissima - D. adamii - D. afromontana - D. aletriformis - D. americana - D. angustifolia - D. arborea - D. aubryana - D. aurea - D. auwahiensis - D. bequaertii - D. bicolor - D. brachyphylla - D. brachystachys - D. braunii - D. breviflora - D. bueana - D. buettneri - D. calocephala - D. cambodiana - D. camerooniana - D. cantleyi - D. cerasifera - D. chiniana - D. cincta - D. cinnabari - D. cochinchinensis - D. concinna - D. conferta - D. congensis - D. congoensis - D. cristula - D. cubensis - D. curtisii - D. cuspidata - D. cuspidibracteata - D. deisteliana - D. densifolia - D. draco - D. ellenbeckiana - D. finlaysonii - D. fischeri - D. floribunda - D. fontanesiana - D. forbesii - D. fragrans - D. gabonica - D. glomerata - D. goldieana - D. granulata - D. griffithii - D. halaapepe - D. hanningtonii - D. hawaiiensis - D. hewittii - D. hokouensis - D. kirkii - D. kochiana - D. konaensis - D. kupensis - D. lancea - D. laurentii - D. laxissima - D. ledermannii - D. letestui - D. longifolia - D. maingayi - D. mannii - D. marginata - D. ×masseffiana - D. multiflora - D. novoguineensis - D. nutans - D. nyangensis - D. oddonii - D. ombet - D. ovata - D. pachyphylla - D. parviflora - D. penangensis - D. pendula - D. petiolata - D. phanerophlebia - D. phrynioides - D. poggei - D. porteri - D. praetermissa - D. pseudoreflexa - D. reflexa - D. robusta - D. rubroaurantiaca - D. ×salviatii - D. saposchnikowii - D. scabra - D. schizantha - D. serrulata - D. siamica - D. singapurensis - D. soyauxiana - D. spicata - D. stenophylla - D. steudneri - D. surculosa - D. talbotii - D. tamaranae - D. terniflora - D. tessmannii - D. ×thomsonii - D. thwaitesii - D. timorensis - D. transvaalensis - D. umbraculifera - D. umbratica - D. vanderystii - D. viridiflora - D. xiphophylla - D. yuccifolia


Dracaena Vand. ex L., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, 2: 229. 1767.


* Draco Crantz, Duab. Drac. arbor., 13. 1768.
* Drakaina Raf., Fl. tellur. vol. 4, 17 (med.). 1838.
* Ezehlsia Lour. ex B.A.Gomes, Mem. Acad. Real Sci. Lisboa, 2 Cl. Sci. Moraes, n.s., 4(1): 29. 1868.
* Nemampsis Raf., Fl. tellur. vol. 4, 16. 1838.
* Oedera Crantz, Duab. Drac. arbor., 30. 1768.
* Pleomele Salisb., Prodr. stirp. Chap. Allerton, 245. 1796.
* Stoerkea Baker in J. Linn. Soc. Bot. vol. 14, 523. 1875.
* Stoerkia Crantz, Duab. Drac. arbor., 25. 1768.
* Terminalis Medik., Theodora: 83. 1786.

Synonymous or excluded taxa

D. deremensis - D. sanderiana -

Vernacular names
English: Dracaena
Nederlands: Dracaena
Svenska: Dracenasläktet

Dracaena (pronounced /drəˈsiːnə/,[2] romanized form of the Ancient Greek δράκαινα - drakaina, "female dragon") is a genus of about 40 species of trees and succulent shrubs classified in the family Ruscaceae in the APG II system, or, according to some treatments, separated (sometimes with Cordyline) into a family of their own, Dracaenaceae or in the Agavaceae. The majority of the species are native in Africa, with a few in southern Asia and one in tropical Central America. The segregate genus Pleomele is now generally included in Dracaena. The genus Sanseviera is closely related, and has recently been synonymized under Dracaena in the Kubitzki system.


Dracaena have a secondary thickening meristem in their trunk. This monocotyledonous secondary thickening meristem is quite different from the thickening meristem found in dicotyledonous plants and is termed Dracaenoid thickening by some authors. This character is shared with other members of the Agavaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae among other related families.


They can be divided into two groups based on their growth habits:

A group of tree-size species with stout trunks and stiff, broad-based leaves, growing in arid semi-desert areas, and known as dragon trees.

* Dracaena americana – Central America Dragon Tree
* Dracaena arborea – Tree Dracaena
* Dracaena cinnabari Balf.f. – Socotra Dragon Tree
* Dracaena draco (L.) L. – Canary Islands Dragon Tree
* Dracaena ombet – Gabal Elba Dragon Tree
* Dracaena tamaranae – Gran Canaria Dragon Tree

A group of smaller, shrubby species with slender stems and flexible strap-shaped leaves, growing as understorey plants in rainforests (and very popular as houseplants), and known collectively as shrubby dracaenas. Many of the species common as houseplants are toxic to pets, though not humans, according to the ASPCA among others.

* Dracaena aletriformis (Haw.) Bos)
* Dracaena aubryana Brongn. ex E.Morren (=D. thalioides)
* Dracaena bicolor Hook.
* Dracaena cincta
* Dracaena concinna Kunth
* Dracaena elliptica
* Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker Gawl. (=D. deremensis) – Striped Dracaena, Compact Dracaena, corn plant, Cornstalk Dracaena
* Dracaena goldieana W.Bull
* Dracaena hookeriana
* Dracaena mannii
* Dracaena marginata Lam. – Red-edged Dracaena or Madagascar Dragon Tree
* Dracaena marmorata
* Dracaena phrynioides
* Dracaena reflexa Lam. – Pleomele Dracaena or "Song of India"
* Dracaena sanderiana Sander ex Mast. – Ribbon Dracaena, marketed as "Lucky Bamboo"
* Dracaena surculosa Lindl. – Spotted Dracaena or Gold Dust Dracaena
* Dracaena umbraculifera Jacq.[3]

Formerly placed here

* Asparagus asparagoides (L.) Druce (as D. medeoloides L.f.)
* Cordyline australis (G.Forst.) Endl. (as D. australis G.Forst.)
* Cordyline fruticosa (L.) A.Chev. (as D. terminalis Lam.)
* Cordyline indivisa (G.Forst.) Steud. (as D. indivisa G.Forst.)
* Cordyline obtecta (Graham) Baker (as D. obtecta Graham)
* Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC. (as D. ensifolia L.)
* Cordyline stricta (Sims) Endl. (as D. stricta Sims)
* Liriope graminifolia (L.) Baker (as D. graminifolia L.)
* Lomandra filiformis (Thunb.) Britten (as D. filiformis Thunb.)[3][4]


A bright red resin, dragon's blood, is produced from D. draco and, in ancient times, from D. cinnabari. Modern dragon's blood is however more likely to be from the unrelated Daemonorops rattan palms.

Some species such as D. deremensis, D. fragrans, D. godseffiana, D. marginata, and D. sanderiana are popular as houseplants. Rooted stem cuttings of D. sanderiana are widely marketed in the U.S.A. as "Lucky Bamboo", although only superficially resembling true bamboos.

Medicinal uses

Dracaena can produce a bright red resin, called dragon's blood. The red resin was used in ancient times as medicine.[5]



1. ^ a b "Genus: Dracaena Vand. ex L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2010-01-19. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/genus.pl?3962. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. pp. 606–607. ISBN 0376038519.
3. ^ a b "GRIN Species Records of Dracaena". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/splist.pl?3962. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
4. ^ Dracaena names. Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database.
5. ^ Yronwode, C. (2002). Hoodoo Herb & Root Magic. The Lucky Mojo Curio Co., Forestville, CA. ISBN 0-9719612-0-4.

General references

* Waterhouse, J. T. (1987). "The Phylogenetic Significance of Dracaena-type growth". Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 109: 129–128.

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Source: Wikipedia, Wikispecies: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License