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Echinacea purpurea

Echinacea purpurea 'Magnus', Photo: nps.gov

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Asterales
Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Heliantheae
Subtribus: Unassigned
Genus: Echinacea
Species: Echinacea purpurea

Name

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

References

* Methodus 591. 1794
* USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Data from 07-Oct-06]. [1]

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Dansk: Have-Purpusolhat
English: Eastern purple coneflower
Español: Equinácea purpúrea
日本語: ムラサキバレンギク

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Echinacea purpurea (Eastern purple coneflower or Purple coneflower) is a species of flowering plant in the genus Echinacea.[1] Its cone-shaped flowering heads are usually, but not always purple.[2] It is native to eastern North America[1] and present to some extent in the wild in much of the eastern, southeastern and midwest United States.[3] It is also grown as an ornamental plant, and numerous cultivars have been developed for flower quality and plant form.[2]

Physical characteristics

This perennial flowering plant is 1.2 m tall and 0.5 m wide at maturity. Depending on the climate, it begins to bloom in late May or early July. Its individual flowers (florets) within the flower head are hermaphroditic, having both male and female organs on each flower. It is pollinated by butterflies and bees. Its habitats include dry open woods, prairies and barrens, as well as cultivated beds. Although the plant prefers loamy or sandy, well-drained soils, it is little affected by the soil's pH. Unable to grow in the shade, E. purpurea thrives in either dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought, once established.

Propagation

E. purpurea can be propagated either vegetatively or from seeds.[1] Useful vegetative techniques include division, root cuttings, and basal cuttings. Clumps can be divided, or broken into smaller bunches, which is normally done in the spring or autumn. Cuttings made from roots that are "pencil-sized" will develop into plants when started in late autumn or early winter.[2] Cuttings of basal shoots in the spring may be rooted when treated with rooting hormones.
Plants raised outdoors

Seed germination occurs best with daily temperature fluctuations[1] or after stratification,[4] which help to end dormancy. Seeds may be started indoors in advance of the growing season or outdoors after the growing season has started.

Predators

Slugs eat this plant.[1]

Medicinal properties
Further information: Medicinal effects of genus Echinacea

One study shows E. purpurea has antidepressant properties in white rats as it increased the stimulating action of L-DOPA.[5] Echinacea is commonly believed to stimulate the immune system.[6]


References

1. ^ a b c d e "Echinacea purpurea - (L.)Moench.". Plants For A Future. June 2004. http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Echinacea+purpurea. Retrieved 2007-06-06.
2. ^ a b c Bruce Zimmerman. Echinacea: Not always a purple coneflower.
3. ^ "Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (eastern purple coneflower)". PLANTS Profile. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ECPU. Retrieved 2007-06-07.
4. ^ USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. Eastern Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)
5. ^ "SpringerLink - Journal Article". www.springerlink.com. http://www.springerlink.com/content/t6512435001n1418/. Retrieved 2008-03-04.
6. ^ http://nccam.nih.gov/health/echinacea/ataglance.htm


Further reading

* Amira M. K. Abouelella, Yasser E. Shahein, Sameh S. ‎Tawfik,‎ Ahmed M. Zahran. Phytotherapeutic effects of Echinacea purpurea in gamma-irradiated mice. [J. Vet. Sci., 8(4): 341-‎‎351‎‏ ‏‎(2007)‎].
* Blanchan, Neltje (2005). Wild Flowers Worth Knowing. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.
* FE Koen, "The Influence of Echinacea Purpurea On The Hypophyseal-Adrenal System;" Arzneimittel-Forschung 3 (1953): 133-137. 8.

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Source: Wikispecies, Wikipedia: All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License