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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Poaceae
Subfamilia: Panicoideae
Tribus: Paniceae
Subtribus: Boivinellinae
Genus: Echinochloa
Sectiones: E. sect. Echinochloa – E. sect. Hispidulae – E. sect. Phyllopogon – E. sect. Utiles

Species: (34)
E. brevipedicellata – E. callopus – E. chacoensis – E. crus-galli – E. crus-pavonis – E. elliptica – E. esculenta – E. frumentacea – E. haploclada – E. helodes – E. holciformis – E. inundata – E. jaliscana – E. jubata – E. kimberleyensis – E. lacunaria – E. macrandra – E. muricata – E. obtusiflora – E. oplismenoides – E. oryzoides – E. paludigena – E. picta – E. pithopus – E. polystachya – E. praestans – E. pyramidalis – E. rotundiflora – E. stagnina – E. telmatophila – E. turneriana – E. ugandensis – E. walteri

Echinochloa P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr.: 53 (1812) nom. cons.

Type species: Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr.: 53 (1812)


Tema Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 496 (1763), nom. rej.
Ornithospermum Durande, Fl. Bourgogne 1: 495 (1782), nom. inval.


Palisot de Beauvois, .M.F.J. 1812. Essai d'une Nouvelle Agrostographie 53, 161.
Govaerts, R. et al. 20139. Echinochloa in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 20139 Nov. 24. Reference page.
Simon, B.K., Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T., Vorontsova, M., Brake, I., Healy, D. & Alfonso, Y. 2013. GrassWorld, Echinochloa. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Nov. 24.
Tropicos.org 2013. Echinochloa. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2013 Nov. 24.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Echinochloa. Published online. Accessed: 24 Nov. 2013.

Vernacular names
English: Barnyard and Billion Dollar Grasses, Barnyard Millets
eesti: Kukehirss
suomi: Kananhirssit

Echinochloa is a very widespread genus of plants in the grass family and tribe Paniceae.[3][4][5] Some of the species are known by the common names barnyard grass or cockspur grass.[6][7]

Some of the species within this genus are millets that are grown as cereal or fodder crops. The most notable of these are Japanese millet (E. esculenta) in East Asia, Indian barnyard millet (E. frumentacea) in South Asia, and burgu millet (E. stagnina) in West Africa. Collectively, the members of this genus are called barnyard grasses (though this may also refer to E. crus-galli specifically), and are also known as barnyard millets or billion-dollar grasses.

When not grown on purpose, these grasses may become a nuisance to farmers. In particular, common barnyard grass (E. crus-galli) is notorious as a weed.[8] It is not easily suppressed with living mulches such as velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis).[9] Early barnyard grass (E. oryzoides) is a well-known example of Vavilovian mimicry: the plants have evolved to resemble rice (Oryza), enabling them to escape weeding more easily.[10]

Among the plant pathogens that affect this genus are the sac fungus Cochliobolus sativus, which has been noted on common barnyard grass, and rice hoja blanca virus. Both affect many other grass species, in particular most important cereals, and Echinochloa weeds may serve as a reservoir. The fungi Drechslera monoceras and Exserohilum monoceras have been evaluated with some success as potential biocontrol agents of common barnyard grass in rice fields. More research is necessary, however, because they may not be host-specific enough to be of practical use.[11] Insect pests include Atherigona falcata, the barnyard millet shoot fly.[12]


Echinochloa brevipedicellata
Echinochloa callopus
Echinochloa chacoensis
Echinochloa colona – shama grass, samo
Echinochloa crus-galli – common barnyard grass, cockspur grass
Echinochloa crus-pavonis – gulf cockspur grass - southwestern + south-central USA; Mexico, Honduras
Echinochloa elliptica
Echinochloa esculenta – Japanese millet
Echinochloa frumentacea – Indian barnyard millet
Echinochloa glabrescens
Echinochloa haploclada
Echinochloa helodes
Echinochloa holciformis
Echinochloa inundata
Echinochloa jaliscana - Jalisco
Echinochloa jubata
Echinochloa kimberleyensis
Echinochloa lacunaria
Echinochloa macrandra
Echinochloa muricata – rough barnyard grass, American barnyard grass - widespread in Canada, USA, northern Mexico
Echinochloa obtusiflora
Echinochloa oplismenoides - Mexico, Guatemala, Arizona
Echinochloa oryzicola[16]
Echinochloa oryzoides – early barnyard grass
Echinochloa paludigena - Florida, Cuba, Puerto Rico
Echinochloa picta
Echinochloa pithopus
Echinochloa polystachya - from Texas, Louisiana, + West Indies to Argentina
Echinochloa praestans
Echinochloa pyramidalis
Echinochloa rotundiflora
Echinochloa stagnina – burgu millet
Echinochloa telmatophila
Echinochloa turneriana
Echinochloa ugandensis
Echinochloa walteri – Walter's barnyard grass - Quebec, Ontario, USA (Northeast, Southeast, Midwest, South-central, California); much of Latin America + West Indies

jungle rice (Echinochloa colona)

Formerly included[2]

see Acroceras Axonopus Brachiaria Oplismenopsis Oplismenus Panicum Paspalidium Pseudechinolaena Setaria Urochloa

Echinochloa compressa - Axonopus compressus
Echinochloa cubensis - Oplismenus hirtellus
Echinochloa echinata P.Beauv. not (Willd.) Nakai 1952 - Pseudechinolaena polystachya
Echinochloa elephantipes - Panicum elephantipes
Echinochloa eruciformis - Brachiaria eruciformis
Echinochloa erythrosperma - Setaria italica
Echinochloa geminata - Paspalidium geminatum
Echinochloa hirta - Urochloa panicoides
Echinochloa intermedia - Setaria italica
Echinochloa lanceolata - Oplismenus compositus
Echinochloa najada - Oplismenopsis najada
Echinochloa nervosa - Acroceras gabunense
Echinochloa notabilis - Urochloa mosambicensis
Echinochloa polystachya (Kunth) Roberty 1954 not (Kunth) Hitchc. 1920- Pseudechinolaena polystachya
Echinochloa pulchella - Panicum pulchellum
Echinochloa ramosa - Brachiaria ramosa
Echinochloa reptans - Brachiaria reptans
Echinochloa setigera - Urochloa setigera
Echinochloa setosum - Setaria setosa
Echinochloa squarrosa - Pseudoraphis spinescens
Echinochloa subcordata - Brachiaria reptans
Echinochloa zizanioides - Acroceras zizanioides


Tropicos, Echinochloa P. Beauv.
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Palisot de Beauvois, Ambroise Marie François Joseph. 1812. Essai d'une Nouvelle Agrostographie 53 in Latin
Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 515 稗属 bai shu Echinochloa P. Beauvois, Ess. Agrostogr. 53. 1812.
Flora of Pakistan
Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Echinochloa Archived 2015-02-01 at the Wayback Machine
US Department of Agriculture plants profile, Echinochloa P. Beauv., cockspur grass
Pheng, S.; Khiev, B.; Pol, C. & Jahn, G.C. (2001): Response of two rice cultivars to the competition of Echinochloa crus-galli. International Rice Research Institute Notes 26(2): 36-37. PDF fulltext Archived 2010-07-05 at the Wayback Machine
Caamal-Maldonado, J.A.; Jimenez, J.J.; Torres, A. & Anaya, A. (2001): The use of allelopathic legume cover and mulch species for weed control in cropping systems. Agronomy Journal 93(1): 27-36. PDF fulltext[permanent dead link]
Barrett, S. (1983): Mimicry in Plants. Scientific American 257(3): 76-83.
Huang, S.W.; Watson, A.K.; Duan, G.F. & Yu, L.Q. (2001): Preliminary evaluation of potential pathogenic fungi as bioherbicides of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in China. International Rice Research Institute Notes 26(2): 36-37. PDF fulltext Archived 2010-07-05 at the Wayback Machine
Kalaisekar, A.; Padmaja, P.G.; Bhagwat, V.R.; Patil, J.V. (2017). Insect Pests of Millets: Systematics, Bionomics, and Management. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-804243-4.
The Plant List search for Echinochloa
Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
Gould, F. W., M. A. Ali & D. E. Fairbrothers. 1972. A revision of Echinochloa in the United States. American Midland Naturalist 87(1): 36–59
Vigueira, C C; Olsen, K M; Caicedo, A L (2012-11-28). "The red queen in the corn: agricultural weeds as models of rapid adaptive evolution". Heredity. Nature. 110 (4): 303–311. doi:10.1038/hdy.2012.104. ISSN 0018-067X. PMC 3607111.

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