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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Ordo: Ericales

Familia: Ericaceae
Subfamilia: Ericoideae
Tribus: Empetreae
Genus: Empetrum
Species: E. atropurpureum – E. eamesii – E. nigrum – E. rubrum
Source(s) of checklist:

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Empetrum in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2020 Apr 27. Reference page.

Name

Empetrum Tourn. ex L., Sp. Pl.: 1022 (1753).

Type species: Empetrum nigrum L.

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Chamaetaxus Bubani

References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 1022. Reference page.

Links

Hassler, M. 2020. Empetrum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2020 Apr 27. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Empetrum in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2020 Apr 27. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Empetrum. Published online. Accessed: Apr 27 2020.
Tropicos.org 2020. Empetrum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 27 Apr 2020.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Багноўка
čeština: šicha
dansk: Revling
Deutsch: Krähenbeeren
English: Crowberries
eesti: Kukemari
võro: Kikkamari
suomi: Variksenmarjat
français: Empetrum
հայերեն: Ակնաթուփ, ժայռաբույս, ագռավահատ, տիտան
íslenska: Krækilyng
ქართული: კეწერა
қазақша: Сужидек
перем коми: Пончӧд
коми: Пончӧд
lietuvių: Varnauogė
Nederlands: Empetrum
norsk: Kreklinger
ирон: Сис
polski: Bażyna
русский: Водяника
саха тыла: Киис отоно
slovenčina: šucha
svenska: Kråkbärssläktet
Türkçe: Empetrum
українська: Водянка
Winaray: Empetrum
中文: 岩高兰属

Empetrum is a genus of three species of dwarf evergreen shrubs in the heath family Ericaceae. They are commonly known as crowberries and bear edible fruit. They are commonly found in the northern hemisphere, from temperate to subarctic climates, and also in the Southern Andes of South America and on the South Atlantic islands of South Georgia, the Falklands and Tristan da Cunha. The typical habitat is on moorlands, tundra, muskeg and spruce forests. They are also often found in areas of coastal exposure on the sand dunes and dune slacks.

Species of Empetrum include: E. nigrum (crowberry or black crowberry) and its tetraploid subspecies E. nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum,[2] E. eamesii (rockberry or purple crowberry) and E. rubrum (red crowberry). All are evergreen mat forming shrubs, with small, light green needle-like leaves 3–10 mm long. The flowers are small and either bisexual or dioecious. The fruit is a fairly dry berry. The plant has slender, wiry, spreading branches covered with short, narrow, stiff leaves, the margins of which are recurved so as to form a hollow cylinder concealing the hairy under face of the leaf, which protects against excessive loss of water from the leaf.[3]

The genus and related ones such as Ceratiola and Corema[4] were for most of the 20th century classified in their own family Empetraceae, but molecular data, leaf morphology, and other considerations point to their inclusion in the Ericaceae (specifically, as a tribe within the subfamily Ericoideae). This tribe does share a number of distinctive morphological features, which seem to be associated with wind pollination.[5]

Uses

In subarctic areas, Empetrum has been a vital addition to the diet of the Inuit and the Sami. After waning popularity, the crowberry is regaining its reputation as an edible berry. It provides a steady crop and the gathering is relatively easy. The high concentration of anthocyanin pigment can be used as a natural food dye. The Dena'ina (Tanaina) harvest it for food, sometimes storing in quantity for winter, and like it mixed with lard or oil. They keep well in a cool place without any special preparation.

The berries are usually collected in the fall of the year but if not picked they may persist on the plant and can be picked in the spring. The Inuit and Native Americans mix them with other berries, especially the blueberry. Cooking enhances the flavor. They make good pie and jelly.

The leaves and stems are used in Dena'ina medicine for diarrhea and stomach problems; they are boiled or soaked in hot water, and the strained liquid drunk.
The yellow-leaved cultivar Empetrum nigrum 'Lucia'

In Dena'ina plantlore in the Outer and Upper Inlet area of Lake Clark, the root is also used as a medicine, being used to remove a growth on an eye and to heal sore eyes. The roots are boiled and the eyes are washed with the strained, cooled tea, to which a little sugar may be added.

The vitamin content of crowberries is low, as is also the concentration of volatile liquids, the lack of which makes them almost odorless. The acidity is lower than is typically encountered in forest berries.

Crowberries are also occasionally grown as ornamental plants in rockeries, notably the yellow-foliage cultivar Empetrum nigrum 'Lucia' (photo, left).
Crowberries (Empetrum nigrum) taken on the Westman Islands, Iceland
See also

List of fruits

References

Empetrum eamesii Fernald & Wiegand, USDA PLANTS
Stace, C. A. (2010) New Flora of the British Isles, 3rd edition. Cambridge University press. ISBN 978-0-521-70772-5. pp. 525
One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Crowberry". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 513.
"Genera for Family = Empetraceae". USDA PLANTS.
"Ericaceae". Flora of China.

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