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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Ordo: Ericales

Familiae: Actinidiaceae - Balsaminaceae - Clethraceae - Cyrillaceae - Diapensiaceae - Ebenaceae - Ericaceae - Fouquieriaceae - Lecythidaceae - Marcgraviaceae - Mitrastemonaceae - Pentaphylacaceae - Polemoniaceae - Primulaceae - Roridulaceae - Sapotaceae - Sarraceniaceae - Sladeniaceae - Styracaceae - Symplocaceae - Tetrameristaceae - Theaceae

Name

Ericales Bercht. & J.Presl, Přir. Rostlin 251. 1820.

Type genus: Erica L. (1753).

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Actinidiales Takht. ex Reveal, Phytologia 74: 174. 1993.
Balsaminales Link, Handbuch 2: 325. 1829.
Cobaeineae Link, Handbuch 1: 822. 1829, pro subordo
Type genus: Cobaea Cav.
Cyrillales Doweld, Tent. Syst. Pl. Vasc.: xliv. 2001.
Type genus: Cyrilla Garden ex L. (1767).
Diapensiales Engl. & Gilg, Syllabus, ed. 9–10: 314. 1924.
Type genus: Diapensia L. (1753).
Diospyrales Prantl, Lehrb. Bot.: 216. 1874 (sub Diospyrinae).
Type genus: Diospyros L. (1753).
Ebenales Engl., Syllabus, ed. 1: 155. 1892.
Type genus: Ebenus Burm. ex Kuntze (1891, non L. 1753)
Empetrales Mart., Consp. Regn. Veg.: 55. 1835 (as Empetreae).
Fouquieriales Mart., Consp. Regn. Veg.: 50. 1835. (as Fouquieriaceae).
Type genus: Fouquieria Kunth (1823).
Lecythidales Mart., Consp. Regn. Veg.: 65. 1835.
Type genus: Lecythis Loefl. (1758).
Marcgraviales Mart., Consp. Regn. Veg.: 61. 1835.
Type genus: Marcgravia L. (1753).
Mitrastemonales Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 25: 252. 1911.
Type genus: Mitrastemon Makino (1911).
Myrsinales R.Br. ex Bercht. & J.Presl, Přir. Rostlin 251. 1820. (as Myrsinaceae).
Type genus: Myrsine L. (1753).
Polemoniales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl, Přir. Rostlin 248. 1820.
Type genus: Polemonium L. (1753).
Polemoniineae Bessey in C.K.Adams, Johnson's Universal Cyclop. 8: 463. 1895, pro subordo
Type genus: Polemonium L. (1753).
Primulales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl, Přir. Rostlin 241. 1820.
Type genus: Primula L. (1753).
Rhodorales Horan., Char. Ess. Fam.: 105. 1847 (as Rhodorastra).
Type genus: Rhodora L. (1762).
Roridulales Nakai, Chosakuronbun Mokuroku [Ord. Fam. Trib. Nov. App.]: 241. 1943.
Type genus: Roridula Burm.f. ex L. (1764).
Samolales Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 29. 1829 (as Samolinarieae).
Type genus: Samolus L. (1753).
Sapotales Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl, Přir. Rostlin 250. 1820.
Type genus: Sapota Mill., nom. illeg. (1754: ≡ Achras L., 1753, nom. rej. = Manikara Adans., nom. cons.).
Sarraceniales Mart., Consp. Regn. Veg.: 61. 1835.
Type genus: Sarracenia L. (1753).
Styracales Mart., Consp. Regn. Veg.: 26. 1835.
Type genus: Styrax L. (1753).
Ternstroemiales Mart., Consp. Regn. Veg.: 52. 1835.
Type genus: Ternstroemia Mutis ex L.f. (1782).
Theales Bercht. & J.Presl, Přir. Rostlin 219. 1820.
Type genus: Thea L. (1753).
Vacciniales Dumort., Anal. Fam. Pl.: 28. 1829.
Type genus: Vaccinium L. (1753).

References

Anderberg, A.A., Rydin, C. & Källerjö, M. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships in the order Ericales s.l.: Analyses of molecular data from five genes from the plastid and mitochondrial genomes. American Journal of Botany 89(4): 677–687. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.89.4.677 Full text PDF Reference page.
Reveal, J.L. 2010. A checklist of familial and suprafamilial names for extant vascular plants. Phytotaxa 6: 1–402. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.6.1.1 Paywall Reference page.
Rose, J.P., Kleist, T.J., Löfstrand, S.D., Drew, B.T., Schönenberger, J. & Sytsma, K.J. 2018. Phylogeny, historical biogeography, and diversification of angiosperm order Ericales suggest ancient Neotropical and East Asian connections. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 122: 59-79. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2018.01.014 Paywall PDF Reference page.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.

Vernacular names
العربية: خلنجيات
azərbaycanca: Erikaçiçəklilər
беларуская: Верасакветныя
català: Erical
čeština: vřesovcotvaré
dansk: Lyng-ordenen
Deutsch: Heidekrautartige
Esperanto: Erikaloj
eesti: Kanarbikulaadsed
euskara: Erikaleak, ainarraren ordena
فارسی: خلنگ‌سانان
עברית: אברשאים
hrvatski: Vrjesolike
magyar: erikavirágúak, hangák, hangavirágúak
íslenska: Lyngbálkur
italiano: Ericali
日本語: ツツジ目
한국어: 진달래목
kurdî: Koma gezik, çay û çûxan
lietuvių: Erikiečiai
македонски: Вресовидни
Nederlands: Heideachtigen
polski: wrzosowce
русский: Верескоцветные
slovenčina: vresovcotvaré
svenska: Ljungordningen
తెలుగు: ఎరికేలిస్
ไทย: อันดับกุหลาบป่า
українська: Вересоцвіті
Tiếng Việt: Bộ Thạch nam
中文: 杜鹃花目

The Ericales are a large and diverse order of dicotyledons. Species in this order have considerable commercial importance including for tea, persimmon, blueberry, kiwifruit, Brazil nuts, argan, and azalea. The order includes trees, bushes, lianas, and herbaceous plants. Together with ordinary autophytic plants, the Ericales include chlorophyll-deficient mycoheterotrophic plants (e.g., Sarcodes sanguinea) and carnivorous plants (e.g., genus Sarracenia).

Many species have five petals, often grown together. Fusion of the petals as a trait was traditionally used to place the order in the subclass Sympetalae.[2]

Mycorrhizal associations are quite common among the order representatives, and three kinds of mycorrhiza are found exclusively among Ericales (namely, ericoid, arbutoid and monotropoid mycorrhiza). In addition, some families among the order are notable for their exceptional ability to accumulate aluminum.[3]

Ericales are a cosmopolitan order. Areas of distribution of families vary largely - while some are restricted to tropics, others exist mainly in Arctic or temperate regions. The entire order contains over 8,000 species, of which the Ericaceae account for 2,000-4,000 species (by various estimates).

Economic importance

The most commercially used plant in the order is tea (Camellia sinensis) from the family Theaceae. The order also includes some edible fruits, including kiwifruit (esp. Actinidia deliciosa), persimmon (genus Diospyros), blueberry, huckleberry, cranberry, Brazil nut, and Mamey sapote. The order also includes shea (Vitellaria paradoxa), which is the major dietary lipid source for millions of sub-Saharan Africans. Many Ericales species are cultivated for their showy flowers: well-known examples are azalea, rhododendron, camellia, heather, polyanthus, cyclamen, phlox, and busy Lizzie.
Gallery of photos

Impatiens balsamina

Primula rosea from the Primulaceae

Classification
Simplified phylogeny based on[4]

These families are recognized in the APG III system[1] as members of the Ericales:

Family Actinidiaceae (kiwifruit family)
Family Balsaminaceae (balsam family)

Impatiens balsamina from the Balsaminaceae
Family Clethraceae (clethra family)
Family Cyrillaceae (cyrilla family)
Family Diapensiaceae
Family Ebenaceae (ebony and persimmon family)
Family Ericaceae (heath, rhododendron, and blueberry family)
Family Fouquieriaceae (ocotillo family)
Family Lecythidaceae (Brazil nut family)
Family Marcgraviaceae
Family Mitrastemonaceae
Family Pentaphylacaceae
Family Polemoniaceae (phlox family)
Family Primulaceae (primrose and snowbell family)
Family Roridulaceae
Family Sapotaceae (sapodilla family)
Family Sarraceniaceae (American pitcher plant family)
Family Sladeniaceae
Family Styracaceae (silverbell family)
Family Symplocaceae (sapphireberry family)
Family Tetrameristaceae
Family Theaceae (tea and camellia family)

Likely phylogenetic relationships between the families of the Ericales:[5]

Ericales
ericoids

Cyrillaceae

Ericaceae

Clethraceae

sarracenioids

Roridulaceae

Actinidiaceae

Sarraceniaceae

styracoids

Styracaceae

Diapensiaceae

Symplocaceae

Theaceae

Pentaphylacaceae

primuloids

Primulaceae

Ebenaceae

Sapotaceae

polemonioids

Polemoniaceae

Fouquieriaceae

Lecythidaceae

Mitrastemonaceae

balsaminoids

Marcgraviaceae

Tetrameristaceae

Balsaminaceae





Previously included families

These families are not recognized in the APG III system[1] but have been in common use in the recent past:

Family Myrsinaceae (cyclamen and scarlet pimpernel family) → Primulaceae
Family Pellicieraceae → Tetrameristaceae
Family Maesaceae → Primulaceae
Family Ternstroemiaceae → Pentaphylacaceae
Family Theophrastaceae → Primulaceae

These make up an early diverging group of asterids.[6] Under the Cronquist system, the Ericales included a smaller group of plants, which were placed among the Dilleniidae:

Family Ericaceae
Family Cyrillaceae
Family Clethraceae
Family Grubbiaceae
Family Empetraceae
Family Epacridaceae
Family Pyrolaceae
Family Monotropaceae

See also

Paradinandra

References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
Robyns, W. (31 December 1972). "Outline of a New System of Orders and Families of Sympetalae". Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique. 42 (4): 363–372. doi:10.2307/3667661. JSTOR 3667661.
(Jansen et al., 2004).
Rose, Jeffrey P.; Kleist, Thomas J.; Löfstrand, Stefan D.; Drew, Bryan T.; Schönenberger, Jürg; Sytsma, Kenneth J. (1 May 2018). "Phylogeny, historical biogeography, and diversification of angiosperm order Ericales suggest ancient Neotropical and East Asian connections". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 122: 59–79. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2018.01.014. ISSN 1055-7903. PMID 29410353.
Soltis, Douglas; Soltis, Pamela; Endress, Peter; Chase, Mark W.; Manchester, Steven; Judd, Walter; Majure, Lucas; Mavrodiev, Evgeny (2018). Phylogeny and Evolution of the Angiosperms (p. 262). University of Chicago Press. Kindle Edition.

Bremer, Birgitta; Kåre Bremera; Nahid Heidaria; Per Erixona; Richard G. Olmsteadb; Arne A. Anderbergc; Mari Källersjöd; Edit Barkhordarian (August 2002). "Phylogenetics of asterids based on 3 coding and 3 non-coding chloroplast DNA markers and the utility of non-coding DNA at higher taxonomic levels". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 24 (2): 274–301. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00240-3. PMID 12144762.

Bibliography

du Mortier, B.C.J. (1829). Analyse des Familles de Plantes : avec l'indication des principaux genres qui s'y rattachent. 28. Tournay: Imprimerie de J. Casterman.
Jansen, S.; Watanabe, T.; Caris, P.; Geuten, K.; Lens, F.; Pyck, N.; Smets, E. (2004). "The Distribution and Phylogeny of Aluminium Accumulating Plants in the Ericales". Plant Biology (Stuttgart). 6 (4): 498–505. doi:10.1055/s-2004-820980. PMID 15248133.
Judd, W.S.; Campbell, C.S.; Kellogg, E.A.; Stevens, P.F.; Donoghue, M.J. (2002). "Ericales". Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach (2nd ed.). Sinauer Associates. pp. 425–436. ISBN 978-0-87893-403-4.
Smets, E.; Pyck, N. (February 2003). "Ericales (Rhododendron)". Nature Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Nature Publishing Group.
Arne A. Anderberg; Bertil Stahl; Mari Kallersjo (May 2000). "Maesaceae, a New Primuloid Family in the Order Ericales s.l.". Taxon. 49 (2): 183–187. doi:10.2307/1223834. JSTOR 1223834.
Schönenberger, Jürg; Anderberg, Arne A.; Sytsma, Kenneth J. (1 March 2005). "Molecular Phylogenetics and Patterns of Floral Evolution in the Ericales". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 166 (2): 265–288. doi:10.1086/427198. JSTOR 10.1086/427198. S2CID 35461118.

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