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Erigeron annuus

Erigeron annuus , Photo: Michael Lahanas

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Astereae
Subtribus: Conyzinae
Genus: Erigeron
Sectio: E. sect. Phalacroloma
Species: Erigeron annuus
Name

Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 2(2): 431 (1807).
Synonyms

Aster annuus L.
Aster stenactis E. H. L. Krause
Cineraria corymbosa Moench
Diplopappus annuus (L.) Bluff & Fingerh.
Diplopappus dubius Cass.
Doronicum bellidiflorum Schrank
Erigeron annuus var. discoideus (Vict. & J. Rousseau) Cronquist
Erigeron bellidioides Spenn.
Erigeron diversifolius Rich. ex Rchb.
Erigeron heterophyllus Muhl. ex Willd.
Erigeron strigosus Bigelow
Phalacroloma acutifolium Cass.
Phalacroloma annuum (L.) Dumort.
Pulicaria annua (L.) Gaertn.
Pulicaria bellidiflora (Schrank) Wallr.
Stenactis annua (L.) Cass.
Stenactis dubia (Cass.) Cass.

Distribution
Native distribution areas:
References

Persoon, C.H. 1806–1807. Synopsis plantarum, seu enchiridium botanicum, complectens enumerationem systematicam specierum hucusque cognitarum. Pars secunda. 657 pp. Apud Bibliopolas Treuttel et Würtz, Parisiis Lutetiorum [Paris]; Apud J. G. Cottam, Tubingae [Tübingen]. BHL Biblioteca Digital Reference page. : 2(2):431.

Links

Hassler, M. 2019. Erigeron annuus. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2019. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Mar. 11. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Erigeron annuus. Published online. Accessed: Mar. 11 2019.
The Plant List 2013. Erigeron annuus in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 Mar. 11.
Tropicos.org Mar.. Erigeron annuus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: {{{4}}} 11 Mar..

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Feinstrahl
English: Annual fleabane
suomi: Sädekallioinen
français: Vergerette annuelle
magyar: Egynyári seprence
italiano: Cespica annua
日本語: ヒメジョオン
lietuvių: Vienmetė šiušelė
Nederlands: Zomerfijnstraal
polski: Przymiotno białe
svenska: Sommarbinka
Türkçe: Yıllık şifa otu
中文: 一年蓬

Erigeron annuus (formerly Aster annuus), the annual fleabane, daisy fleabane,[3] or eastern daisy fleabane,[4] is a species of herbaceous, annual or biennial flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae.

Description

Erigeron annuus often grows as an annual but can sometimes grow as a biennial. It is herbaceous with alternate, simple leaves, and green, sparsely hairy stems, which can grow to between 30 and 150 centimeters (about 1 to 5 feet) in height. Leaves are numerous and large relative to other species of Erigeron, with lower leaves, especially basal leaves, coarsely toothed or cleft, a characteristic readily distinguishing this species from most other Erigeron.[3][4] Upper leaves are sometimes (not always) toothed, but may have a few coarse teeth towards the outer tips.[5][6]
Close-up of Erigeron annuus

The flower heads are white with yellow centers, with rays that are white to pale lavender, borne spring through fall depending on the individual plant.[7] Ray florets number 40 to 100.[3]
Distribution and habitat
E. annuus at Scott's Run Nature Preserve, Fairfax County, Virginia

Erigeron annuus is native to North America and Central America.[2] It is widespread in most of the United States, especially in the eastern part of its range, but occurs only in scattered locations in the western and southernmost parts of its range.[8] It has been introduced to many other places,[9][10][11] including Korea,[12] Europe, India, and other areas in Asia.[2]

E. annuus grows well in full through partial sun on sites with ample moisture. It is tolerant of a wide range of soil conditions, including gravel and clay. In hot, dry weather, lower leaves often yellow and wither.[5]
Ecology

Erigeron annuus is a native pioneer species that often colonizes disturbed areas such as pastures, abandoned fields, vacant lots, roadsides, railways, and waste areas. In these habitats it competes, often successfully, with introduced invasive weeds.[5]

Flowers are pollinated by a variety of bees, including little carpenter bees, cuckoo bees, halictine bees, and masked bees; as well as flies, including syrphid flies, bee flies, tachinid flies, flesh flies, anthomyiid flies, and muscid flies. Wasps, small butterflies, and other insects also visit the flowers to a lesser degree, seeking nectar, as well as a few pollen-feeding beetles.[5]

Schinia lynx (lynx flower moth) caterpillars feed on the flowers and seeds of annual fleabane and other fleabanes, and Lygus lineolaris (tarnished plant bug) sucks the plant juices. Some mammals eat the foliage, flowers and stems, including sheep, groundhogs, and rabbits.[5]
References

NatureServe (3 September 2021). "Erigeron annuus White-top Fleabane". NatureServe Explorer (explorer.natureserve.org). Arlington, Virginia: NatureServe. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
POWO (2021), "Erigeron annuus (L.) Desf", Plants of the World Online (www.plantsoftheworldonline.org), Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 23 September 2021
Ann Fowler Rhoads and Timothy A. Block, Ill. Ann Anisko, Plants of Pennsylvania, 2nd ed, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007. pp. 923.
David M. Brandenburg, Field Guide to Wildflowers of North America, National Wildlife Federation, Sterling Publishing Co., New York, 2010, pp. 150.
Hilty, John (2016), "Annual Fleabane (Erigeron annuus)", Illinois Wildflowers
Nesom, Guy L. (2006), "Erigeron annuus", in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.), Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA), 20, New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA
"Annual Fleabane", USGS, 3 August 2006, retrieved 29 April 2008
Biota of North America Program 2014 state-level distribution map
"Erigeron annuus", Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA
Chen, Yilin; Brouillet, Luc, "Erigeron annuus", Flora of China – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA
Altervista Flora Italiana, Cespica annua, Erigeron annuus (L.) Desf. includes photos and European distribution map
"개망초". www.doopedia.co.kr (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-05-07.

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