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Sydney Blue Gum (E.saligna)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Myrtales

Familia: Myrtaceae
Subfamilia: Myrtoideae
Tribus: Eucalypteae
Genus: Eucalyptus
Subgenus: E. subg. Symphyomyrtus
Sectio: E. sect. Bisectae
Series: E. ser. Erectae
Species: Eucalyptus sargentii
Subspecies: E. sargentii subsp. fallens - E. sargentii subsp. sargentii
Name

Eucalyptus sargentii Maiden
References

Crit. revis. Eucalyptus 7:58. 1924
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Eucalyptus sargentii in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 09-Oct-10.

Vernacular names
English: Salt River Gum


Eucalyptus sargentii, commonly known as Salt River gum,[2] is a species of mallet, mallee or small tree that is endemic to Western Australia. It has rough bark on part or all of the trunk, smooth bark above, linear to narrow lance-shaped leaves, flower buds in groups of seven, whitish to creamy yellow flowers and conical fruit.

Description

Eucalyptus sargentii is a tree or a mallee that typically grows to a height of 3–12 m (9.8–39.4 ft) but does not usually form a lignotuber (a mallet). It has smooth greenish bark that is brownish when new, usually with rough, greyish flaky bark on part or all of the trunk. Adult leaves are arranged alternately, the same shade of green on both sides, linear to narrow lance-shaped or curved, 53–126 mm (2.1–5.0 in) long and 5–13 mm (0.20–0.51 in) wide tapering to a petiole 5–18 mm (0.20–0.71 in) long. The flower buds are arranged in leaf axils in groups of seven on an unbranched peduncle 7–20 mm (0.28–0.79 in) long, the individual buds on pedicels 3–6 mm (0.12–0.24 in) long. Mature buds are an elongated oval shape, 16–26 mm (0.63–1.02 in) long and 4–5 mm (0.16–0.20 in) wide with a horn-shaped operculum that is about twice as long as the floral cup. Flowering occurs from August or October to December or January and the flowers are whitish to creamy yellow. The fruit is a woody conical capsule 6–9 mm (0.24–0.35 in) long and 5–8 mm (0.20–0.31 in) wide with the valves near rim level.[2][3][4]
Taxonomy and naming

Eucalyptus sargentii was first formally described in 1924 by Joseph Maiden in his book A Critical Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus.[5][6] The specific epithet honours Oswald Hewlett Sargent, a pharmacist and naturalist from York.[7]

In 1992, Lawrie Johnson and Ken Hill described E. sargentii subsp. fallens and E. sargentii subsp. sargentii[8] but only the autonym is accepted by the Australian Plant Census (APC).[9] In 2005, Dean Nicolle described E. sargentii subsp. onesis and the name is accepted by the APC.[10][11] Subspecies onesis differs from the autonym in having a lignotuber and a dense, spreading mallee habit.[10] The name onesis is from an ancient Greek word meaning "advantage" or "use", referring to the potential use of this subspecies in reclaiming saline sites.[12]
Distribution and habitat

Salt River gum grows in open woodland in low-lying, poorly drained areas near salt lakes and salt creeks. It has a scattered distribution from Pithara to Lake Grace in the Avon Wheatbelt biogeographic region. Subspecies onesis is restricted to seven populations between Piawaning, York and Cunderdin.[3][4][10]
Conservation status

Subspecies sargenti is classified as "not threatened" by the Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife,[13] but subspecies onesis is classified as "Priority Three" by the Government of Western Australia Department of Parks and Wildlife[2] meaning that it is poorly known and known from only a few locations but is not under imminent threat.[14]
See also

List of Eucalyptus species

References

"Eucalyptus sargentii". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
"Eucalyptus sargentii". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions.
"Eucalyptus sargentii subsp. sargentii". Euclid: Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
Chippendale, George M. "Eucalyptus sargentii". Australian Biological Resources Study, Department of the Environment and Energy, Canberra. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
"Eucalyptus sargentii". APClassification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Myrtales

Familia: Myrtaceae
Subfamilia: Myrtoideae
Tribus: Eucalypteae
Genus: Eucalyptus
Subgenus: E. subg. Symphyomyrtus
Sectio: E. sect. Latoangulatae
Series: E. ser. Transversae
Species: Eucalyptus saligna
Name

Eucalyptus saligna Sm.
References

Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. London 3:285. 1797
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Eucalyptus saligna in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 09-Oct-10.

Vernacular names
English: Sydney Blue GumNI. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
Maiden, Joseph (1924). A Critical Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus. Sydney: New South Wales Government Printer. pp. 58–60. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
"Sargent, Oswald H. (1880 - 1952)". Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria Australian National Herbarium. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
Johnson, Lawrence A.S.; Hill, Kenneth D. (1992). "Systematic studies in the eucalypts. 5. New taxa and combinations in Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) in Western Australia". Telopea. 4 (4): 573–575. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
"Eucalyptus sargentii subsp. sargentii". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
Nicolle, Dean (2005). "A rare and endangered new subspecies of Eucalyptus sargentii (Myrtaceae) with high potential for revegetation of saline sites from south- western Australia and notes on E. diminuta and E. sargentii subsp. fallens" (PDF). Nuytsia. 15 (3): 396–399. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
"Eucalyptus sargentii subsp. onesis". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
Francis Aubie Sharr (2019). Western Australian Plant Names and their Meanings. Kardinya, Western Australia: Four Gables Press. p. 372. ISBN 9780958034180.
"Eucalyptus sargentii subsp. sargentii". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions.
"Conservation codes for Western Australian Flora and Fauna" (PDF). Government of Western Australia Department of Parks and Wildlife. Retrieved 18 December 2019.


Eucalyptus saligna, commonly known as the Sydney blue gum or blue gum,[2] is a species of medium-sized to tall tree that is endemic to eastern Australia. It has rough, flaky bark near the base of the trunk, smooth bark above, lance-shaped to curved adult leaves, flower buds in groups of seven, nine or eleven, white flowers and cylindrical to conical or cup-shaped fruit.


Description

Eucalyptus saligna is a tree with a straight trunk that typically grows to a height of 30–55 m (98–180 ft), rarely to 65 m (213 ft), a dbh of 2–2.5 m (6 ft 7 in – 8 ft 2 in), and forms a lignotuber. The trunk has smooth pale grey or white bark with 1–4 m (3 ft 3 in – 13 ft 1 in) of rough brownish bark at the base. Young plants and coppice regrowth have lance-shaped to egg-shaped or oblong leaves that are paler on the lower surface, 37–120 mm (1.5–4.7 in) long and 15–40 mm (0.59–1.57 in) wide. Adult leaves are arranged alternately, glossy green, paler on the lower surface, lance-shaped to curved, 90–190 mm (3.5–7.5 in) long and 15–40 mm (0.59–1.57 in) wide, on a petiole 15–30 mm (0.59–1.18 in) long. The flower buds are arranged in leaf axils in groups of seven, nine or eleven on an unbranched peduncle 5–15 mm (0.20–0.59 in) long, the individual buds sessile or on pedicels up to 5 mm (0.20 in) long. Mature buds are spindle-shaped, oval or diamond-shaped, 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long and 3–5 mm (0.12–0.20 in) wide with a conical or beaked operculum. Flowering occurs from December to March and the flowers are white. The fruit is a woody cylindrical, conical or cup-shaped capsule 4–9 mm (0.16–0.35 in) long and 4–7 mm (0.16–0.28 in) wide with the valves protruding above the rim.[2][3][4][5][6]
Taxonomy and naming

Eucalyptus saligna was first formally described in 1797 by English naturalist James Edward Smith in Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, and still bears its original name.[7][8] The species name saligna refers to some likeness to a willow, though what attribute this is, is unclear.[5] It has been classified in the subgenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Latoangulatae, Series Transversae (eastern blue gums) by Ian Brooker and David Kleinig. Its two closest relatives are the flooded gum (E. grandis) and the mountain blue gum (E. deanei).[9]
Distribution and habitat

Sydney blue gum is generally found within 120 km (75 mi) of the coastline in its range from Sydney to Maryborough in central Queensland. To the northwest, it is found in disjunct populations in central Queensland, including in Eungella National Park, Kroombit Tops, Consuelo Tableland, Blackdown Tableland and Carnarvon Gorge.[5] It grows in tall forests in more sheltered areas, on clay or loam soils, and alluvial sands.[5][4] It is a component of the endangered blue gum high forest ecological community in the Sydney region.[4] Populations found south of Sydney are now not considered to be E. saligna.[3]

Associated trees include blackbutt (E. pilularis), grey ironbark (E. paniculata), mountain blue gum (E. deanei), flooded gum (E. grandis), tallowwood (E. microcorys), thin-leaved stringybark (E. eugenioides), manna gum (E. viminalis), river peppermint (E. elata), grey gums (E. punctata and E. propinqua ), rough-barked apple (Angophora floribunda), spotted gum (Corymbia maculata), turpentine (Syncarpia glomulifera), brush box (Lophostemon confertus) and forest oak (Allocasuarina torulosa).[5][4]

South of Sydney Harbour and the Parramatta River, pure stands of E. saligna give way to hybrid populations with bangalay (E. botryoides).[4]
Ecology

Eucalyptus saligna regenerates by regrowing from epicormic buds on the trunk and lower branches after bushfire. Trees live for over two hundred years. The grey-headed flying fox (Pteropus poliocephalus) eats the flowers, the koala (Phascalarctos cinereus) eats the leaves, and crimson rosella (Platycercus elegans) eats the seed.[4] The longhorn beetle species Paroplites australis,[10] Agrianome spinicollis and Tessaromma undatum have been recorded from the Sydney blue gum.[4]

The presence of the territorial and aggressive bell miner (Manorina melanophrys) and psyllid insects (Glycaspis) is correlated with dieback of the canopy of E. saligna, a syndrome which has been termed bell-miner-associated dieback (BMAD), though the exact mechanism remains unclear.[11] After colonization by Glycaspis, E. salinga may then be infested by the ambrosia beetle Amasa truncata.[12]
Uses

The wood of this species is heavy (about 850 kg/m3), fairly hard, coarse, even textured and reasonably easy to work. It is used for general building construction, panelling, and boat-building, and is highly prized for flooring and furniture because of its rich dark honey colour.[13]


References

"Eucalyptus saligna". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
"Eucalyptus saligna". Euclid: Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
Hill, Ken. "Eucalyptus saligna". Royal Botanic Garden Sydney. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
Benson, Doug; McDougall, Lyn (1998). "Ecology of Sydney plant species:Part 6 Dicotyledon family Myrtaceae". Cunninghamia. 5 (4): 926.
Boland, Douglas J.; Brooker, M. I. H.; Chippendale, G. M.; McDonald, Maurice William (2006). Forest trees of Australia. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing. p. 84. ISBN 0-643-06969-0. Retrieved 12-24-2011.
Chippendale, George M. "Eucalyptus saligna". Australian Biological Resources Study, Department of the Environment and Energy, Canberra. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
"Eucalyptus saligna". APNI. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
Smith, James Edward (1797). "Botanical Characters of Some Plants of the natural Order of Myrti". Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. 3: 285–286. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
Brooker, M.I.H.; Kleinig, D. A. (1999). Field Guide to Eucalypts. Vol. 1: South-eastern Australia. Melbourne: Bloomings Books. pp. 69–72. ISBN 1-876473-03-7.
Hawkeswood, Trevor J. (1992). "Review of the biology, host plants and immature stages of the Australian Cerambycidae (Coleoptera). Part 1, Parandrinae and Prioninae" (PDF). Giornale Italiano di Entomologia. 6: 207–24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-29. Retrieved 12-24-2011.
Grant Wardell-Johnson; Christine Stone; Harry Recher; A. Jasmyn J. Lynch (2005). "Eucalypt dieback associated with bell miner habitat in south-eastern Australia" (PDF). Australian Forestry. 68 (4): 231–36. doi:10.1080/00049158.2005.10674970. hdl:20.500.11937/43260. S2CID 62827173. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-21. Retrieved 2011-12-23. Retrieved 12-24-2011.
H. D. Gerhold; R. E. Mcdermott; E. J. Schreiner (24 September 2013). Breeding Pest-Resistant Trees: Proceedings of a N.A.T.O. and N.S.F. Elsevier Science. ISBN 978-1-4831-5838-9.
Bootle KR. (1983). Wood in Australia. Types, properties and uses. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Sydney. ISBN 0-07-451047-9

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