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Euphorbia canariensis

Euphorbia canariensis (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Malpighiales

Familia: Euphorbiaceae
Subfamilia: Euphorbioideae
Tribus: Euphorbieae
Subtribus: Euphorbiinae
Genus: Euphorbia
Subgenus: E. subg. Euphorbia
Sectio: E. sect. Euphorbia
Species: Euphorbia canariensis

Euphorbia canariensis L. (1753)

Tithymalus canariensis (L.) H.Karst., Deut. Fl. 587. 1882.
Torfosidis canariensis (L.) Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 112. 1838.

Euphorbia canariensis var. spiralis Bolle ex Boiss. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 83. 1862.
Euphorbia canariensis f. viridis G.Kunkel, Monogr. Biol. Canar. 3: 50. 1972.
Euphorbia tribuloides Lam., Encycl. 2: 415. 1788.

Native distribution areas:

Continental: Africa
Regional: Macaronesia
Canary Is.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. Tomus I. Pp. [I–XII], 1–560. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae [Stockholm]. BHL Reference page. : 450.


Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Euphorbia canariensis in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jun 23. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Euphorbia canariensis. Published online. Accessed: Jun 23 2020.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Euphorbia canariensis in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jun 23. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2020. Euphorbia canariensis. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jun 23.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Euphorbia canariensis in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 08-Apr-12.

Vernacular names
English: Canary Island spurge
español: Cardón
magyar: Kanári kutyatej

Euphorbia canariensis, commonly known as the Canary Island spurge, Hercules club[6] or in Spanish cardón,[7]: 206  is a succulent member of the genus Euphorbia and family Euphorbiaceae[2] endemic to the Canary Islands.[8] It is the plant symbol of the island of Gran Canaria.[9]


The Canary Island spurge is a succulent shrub, growing to between 3 and 4 metres (10 and 13 ft) high. It is made up of fleshy quadrangular or pentagonal trunks that look like cacti. It has no leaves, instead bearing spines 5 to 14 millimetres (0.20 to 0.55 in) long. It produces reddish-green flowers.[8] It is hardy to −2 °C (28 °F).[10]

The latex, which contains diterpenes[11] is poisonous.[12]

Spines on a young shoot



Euphorbia Canariensis.jpg


The species is found on the narrow coastal belt, from sea level to 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) in the Canary Islands.[12]
See also

List of animal and plant symbols of the Canary Islands


Beech, E. (2017). "Euphorbia canariensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T79727248A79727254. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T79727248A79727254.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
"Euphorbia canariensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2008-03-22.
International Plant Names Index. "whole name = Euphorbia canariensis". Retrieved 2008-03-22.
Wijnands, D. O. (1983). "Euphorbiaceae". The Botany of the Commelins: A Taxonomical, Nomenclatural, and Historical. CRC Press. ISBN 978-90-6191-262-0. Retrieved 2008-03-22.
Decandolle, A.P. (1837). "Euphorbia canariensis". Plantarum historia succulentarum = Histoire des plantes grasses. Retrieved 2008-03-22.
Barbara J. Collins, Ph.D. (2007-08-09). "Photographs of succulents Euphorbia canariensis 4744". Photographs of succulents. California Lutheran University. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
Bramwell, David & Bramwell, Zoë (2001). Wild Flowers of the Canary Islands (2nd ed.). Madrid: Rueda. p. 206. ISBN 978-84-7207-129-2.
"Canary Islands Flora - Arid Habitat". Archived from the original on 2008-03-06. Retrieved 2008-03-02.
"Símbolos de la naturaleza para las Islas Canarias" [Natural Symbols for the Canary Islands]. Ley No. 7/1991 of 30 April 1991 (in Spanish). Vol. 151. pp. 20946–20497 – via BOE.
Thijs de Graaf. "Euphorbia". euphorbia engels. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
Marco, J.A., J; Sanz Cervera, J.F.; Yuste, A. (June 1997). "Ingenane and lathyrane diterpenes from the latex of Euphorbia canariensis". Phytochemistry-Oxford. 45 (3): 563–570. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00018-6. Archived from the original on 2008-08-07. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
University of Connecticut (18 March 2008). "Euphorbia canariensis L." EEB Greenhouse Accession Data. Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Greenhouses. Retrieved 2008-03-23.

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