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Euphorbia peplus

Euphorbia peplus (*)

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Malpighiales

Familia: Euphorbiaceae
Subfamilia: Euphorbioideae
Tribus: Euphorbieae
Subtribus: Euphorbiinae
Genus: Euphorbia
Species: Euphorbia peplus
Varietates: E. p. var. minima – E. p. var. peplus
Name

Euphorbia peplus L., Sp. Pl. 1: 456 (1753).
Synonyms

Homotypic
Esula peplus (L.) Haw., Syn. Pl. Succ.: 158 (1812).
Euphorbion peplum (L.) St.-Lag., Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 125 (1880).
Keraselma peplus (L.) Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 116 (1838).
Galarhoeus peplus (L.) Prokh., Trudy Kuibyshevsk. Bot. Sada 1: 34 (1941).
Tithymalus peplus (L.) Hill, Hort. Kew.: 172.3 (1768).

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Europe
Regional: Northern Europe (introduced?)
Denmark, Finland, Føroyar, Great Britain, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden.
Regional: Middle Europe
Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland.
Regional: Southwestern Europe
Baleares, Corse, France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain.
Regional: Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Romania, Sicilia, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia.
Regional: Eastern Europe
Belarus, Baltic States, South European Russia, Northwest European Russia, Ukraine.
Continental: Africa
Regional: Northern Africa
Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.
Regional: West-Central Tropical Africa
Gulf of Guinea Islands.
Regional: Northeast Tropical Africa
Eritrea, Somalia, Sudan.
Regional: South Tropical Africa
Zambia, Zimbabwe.
Regional: Southern Africa
Free State.
Regional: Middle Atlantic Ocean
Ascension, St.Helena.
Continental: Asia-Temperate
Regional: Siberia
West Siberia.
Regional: Caucasus
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus.
Regional: Western Asia
East Aegean Islands, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Sinai, Turkey.
Regional: Arabian Peninsula
Gulf States, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen.
Regional: China
China South-Central, China Southeast.
Regional: Eastern Asia
Japan, Taiwan.
Continental: Asia-Tropical
Regional: Indian Subcontinent
Assam, Pakistan, West Himalaya.
Continental: Australasia
Regional: Australia
Norfolk Islands.
Regional: New Zealand
Chatham Islands, Kermadec Islands, New Zealand North, New Zealand South.
Continental: Pacific
Regional: Southwestern Pacific
New Caledonia.
Regional: South-Central Pacific
Easter Islands, Pitcairn Islands, Tuamotu.
Regional: North-Central Pacific
Hawaii.
Continental: Northern America
Regional: Western Canada
Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan.
Regional: Eastern Canada
New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Québec.
Regional: Northwestern U.S.A.
Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington.
Regional: North-Central U.S.A.
Illinois, Iowa, North Dakota, Wisconsin.
Regional: Northeastern U.S.A.
Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia.
Regional: Southwestern U.S.A.
Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah.
Regional: South-Central U.S.A.
New Mexico, Texas.
Regional: Southeastern U.S.A.
Alabama, Delaware, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia.
Regional: Mexico
Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southwest, Mexico Southeast.
Continental: Southern America
Regional: Central America
Honduras.
Regional: Caribbean
Bermuda, Haiti, Jamaica, Venezuelan Antilles.
Regional: Northern South America
Venezuela.
Regional: Western South America
Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru.
Regional: Brazil
Brazil Southeast, Brazil South.
Regional: Southern South America
Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, Argentina Northwest, Chile Central, Chile North, Juan Fernández Islands, Paraguay.
Continental: Antarctic
Regional: Subantarctic Islands
Tristan da Cunha.
Note: Grey script indicates introduced occurrences.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 456. Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Euphorbia peplus in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jul 06. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Euphorbia peplus. Published online. Accessed: Jul 06 2020.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Euphorbia peplus in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jul 06. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2020. Euphorbia peplus. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jul 06.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Euphorbia peplus in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 08-Apr-12.

Vernacular names
العربية: فربيون ببلوس
azərbaycanca: Dirrik südləyəni, Bostan südləyəni
kaszëbsczi: Wilczé zelé
čeština: pryšec okrouhlý
Cymraeg: Llaethlys bach
dansk: Gaffel-Vortemælk
Deutsch: Garten-Wolfsmilch
dolnoserbski: Zagrodne wjelkowe mloko
English: petty spurge, radium weed, cancer weed, milkweed
español: esula redonda, lechearena, lechecina, lecheinterna, lechera, lecheriega, lecherina, lecherina brava, lecheros, lecheterna, lechetrezna, lechetrezna tomagallos, lechetreznilla, lechibravía, lechieterna, lechiterna, lechitierna, lechocino, letrera, peplo,pichoga, rechitierna de sombrilla, rechitiernas, ésula redonda, tamagallos, tesula redonda, titímalo, tomagallos, tornagallos, tésula redonda
suomi: Kolmisädetyräkki
français: Ésule ronde, Esule ronde
hornjoserbsce: Zahrodna mlóčeń
italiano: Euforbia minore
日本語: チャボタイゲキ
Nederlands: Tuinwolfsmelk
polski: Wilczomlecz ogrodowy
português: Ésula-redonda
Runa Simi: Awaka
русский: Молочай огородный
slovenčina: mliečnik okrúhlolistý
slovenščina: Vrtni mleček
svenska: Rävtörel
Türkçe: Küçük sütleğen
中文(简体): 南欧大戟
中文(繁體): 南歐大戟
中文(臺灣): 南歐大戟
中文: 南欧大戟

Euphorbia peplus (petty spurge,[1][2] radium weed,[2] cancer weed,[2] or milkweed),[2] is a species of Euphorbia, native to most of Europe, northern Africa and western Asia, where it typically grows in cultivated arable land, gardens and other disturbed land.[1][3][4]

Outside of its native range it is very widely naturalised and often invasive, including in Australia, New Zealand, North America and other countries in temperate and sub-tropical regions.[1]

Description

It is an annual plant growing to 5–30 cm (2–12 in) tall (most plants growing as weeds of cultivation tend towards the smaller end), with smooth hairless stems. The leaves are oval-acute, 1–3 cm (0.4–1.2 in) long, with a smooth margin. It has green flowers in three-rayed umbels. The glands, typical of the Euphorbiaceae, are kidney-shaped with long thin horns.[4]
Euphorbia peplus cyathium

Medicinal uses

The plant's sap is toxic to rapidly replicating human tissue, and has long been used as a traditional remedy for common skin lesions.[5] The active ingredient in the sap is a diterpene ester called ingenol mebutate.

A pharmaceutical-grade ingenol mebutate gel has approval from the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of actinic keratosis.[5][6][7]

In Germany, recent studies have linked Euphorbia peplus with the virtual elimination of Bowen disease.[8]

References

"Euphorbia peplus". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2 January 2018.
Hazel Dempster; Bronwen Keighery; Greg Keighery; Rod Randall; Bob Dixon; Bill Betts; Margo O'Byrne; Diane Matthews. "Euphorbia terracina Workshop Proceedings 2000" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-10-25.
Flora Europaea: Euphorbia peplus
Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2
Siller G, Gebauer K, Welburn P, Katsamas J, Ogbourne SM (2009). "PEP005 (ingenol mebutate) gel, a novel agent for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results of a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multicentre, phase IIa study". Australasian Journal of Dermatology. 50 (1): 16–22. doi:10.1111/j.1440-0960.2008.00497.x. PMID 19178487. S2CID 19308099.
Lebwohl, M, et al. "Ingenol Mebutate Gel for Actinic Keratosis." N Engl J Med 366;11, March 15, 2012.
"FDA Approves Picato® (ingenol mebutate) Gel, the First and Only Topical Actinic Keratosis (AK) Therapy With 2 or 3 Consecutive Days of Once-Daily Dosing". eMedicine. Yahoo! Finance. January 25, 2012. Archived from the original on February 10, 2012.
Braun, S.A.; Homey, B.; Gerber, P.A. (October 2014). "Erfolgreiche Behandlung eines Morbus Bowen mit Ingenolmebutat". Der Hautarzt (in German). 65 (10): 848–850. doi:10.1007/s00105-014-3509-5. ISSN 0017-8470. PMID 25217087.

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