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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fagales
Familiae: Betulaceae - Casuarinaceae - Fagaceae - Juglandaceae - Myricaceae - Nothofagaceae - Rhoipteleaceae - Ticodendraceae

Name

Fagales Engler Syllabus 94. (1892)

Type genus: Fagus L. Sp. Pl. 2: 997. (1753)

Synonyms

Juglandineae Thorne & Reveal
Myricineae Thorne & Reveal
Betulales Martius
Carpinales Döll
Casuarinales Berchtold & J. Presl
Corylales Dumortier
Juglandales Berchtold & J. Presl
Myricales Martius
Nothofagales Doweld
Quercales Burnett
Rhoipteleales Reveal
Casuarinanae Reveal & Doweld
Faganae Takhtajan
Juglandanae Reveal

References

Engler, H.G.A. (1892) Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Specielle und Medicinisch-pharceutische Botanik, 94.
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2): 105–121. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x Open access Reference page.
Li, R.-Q., Chen, Z.-D., Lu, A.-M., Soltis, D. E., Soltis, P. S., & Manos, P. S. (2004). Phylogenetic relationships in Fagales based on DNA sequences from three genomes. International Journal of Plant Science, 165(2): 311–324. DOI: 10.1086/381920
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.

Vernacular names
беларуская: Букакветныя
català: Fagal
dansk: Bøge-ordenen
Deutsch: Buchenartige
eesti: Pöögilaadsed
فارسی: توس‌ها
magyar: Bükkfavirágúak
íslenska: Beykibálkur
日本語: ブナ目
한국어: 참나무목
lietuvių: Bukiečiai
latviešu: Dižskābaržu rinda
македонски: Буковидни
русский: Букоцветные
slovenščina: Bukovci
українська: Букоцвіті
Tiếng Việt: Bộ Dẻ
中文: 壳斗目

The Fagales are an order of flowering plants, including some of the best-known trees. The order name is derived from genus Fagus, beeches. They belong among the rosid group of dicotyledons. The families and genera currently included are as follows:

Betulaceae - birch family (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus, Ostrya, Ostryopsis)
Casuarinaceae - she-oak family (Allocasuarina, Casuarina, Ceuthostoma, Gymnostoma)
Fagaceae - beech family (Castanea, Castanopsis, Chrysolepis, Colombobalanus, Fagus, Lithocarpus, Notholithocarpus, Quercus)
Juglandaceae - walnut family (Alfaroa, Carya, Cyclocarya, Engelhardia, Juglans, Oreomunnea, Platycarya, Pterocarya, Rhoiptelea)
Myricaceae - bayberry family (Canacomyrica, Comptonia, Myrica)
Nothofagaceae - southern beech family (Nothofagus)
Ticodendraceae - ticodendron family (Ticodendron)

The older Cronquist system only included four families (Betulaceae, Corylaceae, Fagaceae, Ticodendraceae; Corylaceae now being included within Betulaceae); this arrangement is followed by, for example, the World Checklist of selected plant families.[2] The other families were split into three different orders, placed among the Hamamelidae. The Casuarinales comprised the single family Casuarinaceae, the Juglandales comprised the Juglandaceae and Rhoipteleaceae, and the Myricales comprised the remaining forms (plus Balanops). The change is due to studies suggesting the Myricales, so defined, are paraphyletic to the other two groups.

Characteristics

Most Fagales are wind pollinated and are monoecious with unisexual flowers.[3]
Evolutionary history

The oldest member of the order is the flower Soepadmoa from the late Turonian-Coniacian New Jersey amber, which is a mosaic with characteristics characteristic of both Nothofagus and other Fagales, suggesting that the ancestor of all Fagales was Nothofagus-like.[3]
Systematics

Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships:[1]

Cucurbitales (outgroup)

Fagales

Nothofagaceae

Fagaceae

Myricaceae

Juglandaceae

Ticodendraceae

Betulaceae

Casuarinaceae


References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
"Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Databases and Publications". Archived from the original on 3 February 2004. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
Gandolfo, Maria A.; Nixon, Kevin C.; Crepet, William L.; Grimaldi, David A. (August 2018). "A late Cretaceous fagalean inflorescence preserved in amber from New Jersey". American Journal of Botany. 105 (8): 1424–1435. doi:10.1002/ajb2.1103.

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