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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Zygophyllales

Familia: Zygophyllaceae
Subfamilia: Zygophylloideae
Genus: Fagonia
Species: F. acerosa – F. arabica – F. bruguieri – F. capensis – F. charoides – F. chilensis – F. cretica – F. densa – F. densispina – F. glabra – F. glutinosa – F. gypsophila – F. hadramautica – F. harpago – F. indica – F. khattabii – F. laevis – F. lahovarii – F. latifolia – F. latistipulata – F. longispina – F. mahrana – F. malvana – F. mayana – F. minutistipula – F. mollis – F. olivieri – F. orientalis – F. ovalifolia – F. pachyacantha – F. palmeri – F. paulayana – F. rosei – F. scabra – F. schweinfurthii – F. scoparia – F. socotrana – F. spinosissima – F. villosa – F. zilloides

Fagonia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 386. (1753)

Type species: Fagonia cretica L., Sp. Pl. 1: 386. (1753)

Note: Govaerts et al. (2020) subsume this genus into an expanded Zygophyllum L. (1753), but WS maintains a conservative view, as not all other authorities accept this.

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 386..
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Fagonia in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Nov. 15. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2020. Fagonia. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Nov. 15. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Fagonia. Published online. Accessed: Nov. 15 2020. 2020. Fagonia. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Nov. 15.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Fagonia in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 09-Oct-10.

Vernacular names
suomi: Fagoniat

Fagonia is a genus of wild, flowering plants in the caltrop family, Zygophyllaceae, having about 35 species. Species occurring in the US are commonly referred to as fagonbushes. The distribution of the genus includes parts of Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Mid-East, India, and parts of the Americas. Fagonia species have been used ethnobotanically by traditional practitioners under Ayurvedic and other healing regimes for many maladies. Species occur in deserts, dry washes, ditches and on rocky outcrops, including at altitude.

Fagonia laevis is a perennial herb of the United States desert southwest. It has opposite leaves, trifoliate with spinescent stipules, a pink corolla and smooth fruits. Under cultivation, F. indica has been found to have a long taproot and to its growth slowing where temperatures dipped below 65 F.

Commercial Fagonia products available on the web should be viewed with caution by reason of there being little to no authentication as to species contained therein, based on DNA analysis. It may be that all Fagonia species contain medicinal compounds but that had to be established as of 2015. Research carried out in 2014 in Pakistan found that all six Pakistani Fagonia species, both the verified and unverified ones,[3] were represented in commercial Fagonia products in the Islamabad marketplace. Plant systematists[who?] caution that species other than Fagonia, as well as other, unrelated material, can be present in commercial preparations.

Numerous scientific papers cite Fagonia cretica as the species studied. However, due to the re-ordering of Fagonia species by Beier in 2005, researchers have found that they have actually been studying another Fagonia species, instead, most commonly, Fagonia indica.[3]

As of January 2018, Plants of the World Online accepts the following species:[1]

Fagonia acerosa Boiss.
Fagonia arabica L.
Fagonia bruguieri DC.
Fagonia californica Benth.
Fagonia charoides Chiov.
Fagonia chilensis Hook. & Arn.
Fagonia cretica L.
Fagonia densa I.M.Johnst.
Fagonia densispina Beier & Thulin
Fagonia glutinosa Delile
Fagonia gypsophila Beier & Thulin
Fagonia hadramautica Beier & Thulin
Fagonia harpago Emb. & Maire
Fagonia indica Burm.f.
Fagonia laevis Standl. (syn. Fagonia californica) – California fagonbush
Fagonia lahovarii Volkens & Schweinf.
Fagonia latifolia Delile
Fagonia latistipulata Beier & Thulin
Fagonia longispina Batt.
Fagonia luntii Baker
Fagonia mahrana Beier
Fagonia minutistipula Engl.
Fagonia mollis Delile
Fagonia olivieri DC.
Fagonia orientalis C.Presl
Fagonia pachyacantha Rydb. – sticky fagonbush
Fagonia palmeri Vasey & Rose
Fagonia paulayana J.Wagner & Vierh.
Fagonia scabra Forssk.
Fagonia scoparia Brandegee
Fagonia spinosissima Blatt. & Hallb.
Fagonia subinermis Boiss.
Fagonia villosa D.M.Porter
Fagonia zilloides Humbert


"Fagonia Tourn. ex L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2018-01-26.
"Genus: Fagonia L." Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2004-06-18. Archived from the original on 2012-10-07. Retrieved 2010-10-12.
Beier, Bjorn-Axel Beier (2005). "A revision of the desert shrub Fagonia (Zygophyllaceae)". Systematics and Biodiversity. 3 (3): 221–263. doi:10.1017/S1477200005001684.

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