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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Caryophyllales

Familia: Polygonaceae
Subfamilia: Polygonoideae
Tribus: Fagopyreae
Genus: Fagopyrum
Species: F. acutatum – F. callianthum – F. capillatum – F. caudatum – F. crispatifolium – F. cymosum – F. densivillosum – F. esculentum – F. gilesii – F. giraldii – F. gracilipedoides – F. gracilipes – F. hailuogouense – F. homotropicum – F. jinshaense – F. kashmirianum – F. leptopodum – F. lineare – F. longzhoushanense – F. macrocarpum – F. megacarpum – F. pleioramosum – F. pugense – F. qiangcai – F. rubrifolium – F. snowdenii – F. statice – F. tataricum – F. tibeticum – F. urophyllum – F. wenchuanense
Nothospecies: F. x kuntzei
Name

Fagopyrum Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4. 495 (1754), nom. et typ. cons.

Typus: F. esculentum
Moench, Methodus: 290 (1794)
Name originally conserved against Polygonum sect. Helxine L., which does not have priority at genus rank.

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Harpagocarpus Hutch. & Dandy, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1926(8): 364 (1926).
Eskemukerjea Malick & Sengupta, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 11(3–4): 433 (1972).
Parapteropyrum A.J.Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 19(3): 330 (1981).

Note: Hernández-Ledesma et al., (2015) tentatively treated Eskemukerjea Malick & Sengupta as a segregate and it was left as incertae sedis by Sanchez et al., (2011). Both were content that Harpagocarpus Hutch. & Dandy, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1926(8): 364 (1926) and Parapteropyrum A.J.Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 19(3): 330 (1981) are synonyms. See Ohsako & Li (2020).
References
Primary references

Miller, P. 1754. The Gardeners Dictionary. Abridged. Ed. 4, Vol. 1–3 (unpaged). John & James Rivington, London. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.79061 Reference page. 1: [495]

Additional references

Hernández-Ledesma, P., Berendsohn, W. G., Borsch, T., Mering, S. v., Akhani, H., Arias, S., Castañeda-Noa, I., Eggli, U., Eriksson, R., Flores-Olvera, H., Fuentes-Bazán, S., Kadereit, G., Klak, C., Korotkova, N., Nyffeler R., Ocampo G., Ochoterena, H., Oxelman, B., Rabeler, R. K., Sanchez, A., Schlumpberger, B. O. & Uotila, P. 2015. A taxonomic backbone for the global synthesis of species diversity in the angiosperm order Caryophyllales. Willdenowia 45(3): 281–383. DOI: 10.3372/wi.45.45301 Open access Reference page.
Ohsako, T. & Li, C. 2020. Classification and systematics of the Fagopyrum species. Breeding Science 70(1): 93-100. DOI: 10.1270/jsbbs.19028PDF.
Sanchez, A., Schuster, T.M., Burke, J.M. & Kron, K.A. 2011. Taxonomy of Polygonoideae (Polygonaceae): a new tribal classification. Taxon 60(1): 151–160. DOI: 10.1002/tax.601013 JSTOR Reference page.
Tian, X., Luo, J., Wang, A., Mao, K. & Liu, J. 2011. On the origin of the woody buckwheat Fagopyrum tibeticum (= Parapteropyrum tibeticum) in the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61(2): 515-520. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2011.07.001 Full text on ResearchGate Reference page.
Wang, C.L., Li, Z.Q., Ding, M.Q., Tang, Y., Zhu, X.M., Liu, J.L., Shao, J.R. & and Zhou, M.L. 2017. Fagopyrum longzhoushanense, a new species of Polygonaceae from Sichuan, China. Phytotaxa 291(1): 73–80. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.291.1.7 Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Fagopyrum in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 Jan. 1. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2017. Fagopyrum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2017. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2017 Mar. 21. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2017. Fagopyrum. Published online. Accessed: Mar. 5 2017.
Tropicos.org 2016. Fagopyrum. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2016 Mar. 5.
Fagopyrum – Taxon details on National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
EOL: Fagopyrum

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Buchweizen
English: Buckwheats
eesti: Tatar
suomi: Viljatattaret
日本語: ソバ属
македонски: Елда
polski: Gryka
中文(简体): 荞麦属
中文(繁體): 蕎麥屬
The genus Fagopyrum is in the flowering plant family Polygonaceae. It includes some important food plants, such as F. esculentum (buckwheat) and F. tataricum (Tartary buckwheat). The genus is native to the Indian subcontinent, much of Indochina, and central and southeastern China. Species have been widely introduced elsewhere, throughout the Holarctic and parts of Africa and South America.[2]

Description

Fagopyrum contains 15 to 16 species of plants, including two important crop plants, buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Fagopyrum tataricum (Tartary buckwheat). The two have similar uses, and are classed as pseudocereals, because they are used in the same way as cereals but do not belong to the grass family Poaceae.

Within Fagopyrum, the cultivated species are in the Cymosum group, including Fagopyrum cymosum or perennial buckwheat,[3] the artificial hybrid Fagopyrum × giganteum,[4] and Fagopyrum homotropicum.[5]

This genus has five-petaled flowers arranged in a compound raceme that produces laterally flowered cymose clusters.[6]
Taxonomy

The genus Fagopyrum was first published by Philip Miller in 1754.[1] It is placed in the tribe Fagopyreae (as the only genus) in the subfamily Polygonoideae.[7]
Species

As of March 2019, Plants of the World Online accepted the following species:[2]

Fagopyrum callianthum Ohnishi
Fagopyrum capillatum Ohnishi
Fagopyrum caudatum (Sam.) A.J.Li
Fagopyrum crispatifolium J.L.Liu
Fagopyrum cymosum (Trevir.) Meisn.
Fagopyrum densivillosum J.L.Liu
Fagopyrum esculentum Moench
Fagopyrum gilesii (Hemsl.) Hedberg
Fagopyrum gracilipedoides Ohsako & Ohnishi
Fagopyrum gracilipes (Hemsl.) Dammer
Fagopyrum homotropicum Ohnishi
Fagopyrum jinshaense Ohsako & Ohnishi
Fagopyrum kashmirianum Munshi
Fagopyrum × kuntzei Beck
Fagopyrum leptopodum (Diels) Hedberg
Fagopyrum lineare (Sam.) Haraldson
Fagopyrum longzhoushanense J.R.Shao
Fagopyrum luojishanense J.R.Shao
Fagopyrum macrocarpum Ohsako & Ohnishi
Fagopyrum pleioramosum Ohnishi
Fagopyrum pugense T.Yu
Fagopyrum qiangcai D.Q.Bai
Fagopyrum rubrifolium Ohsako & Ohnishi
Fagopyrum statice (H.Lév.) Gross
Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.
Fagopyrum tibeticum (A.J.Li) Adr.Sanchez & Jan.M.Burke
Fagopyrum urophyllum (Bureau & Franch.) Gross
Fagopyrum wenchuanense J.R.Shao
Fagopyrum zuogongense Q.F.Chen

See also

List of edible seeds

References

"Plant Name Details for Fagopyrum Mill". The International Plant Names Index. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
"Fagopyrum Mill". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
PFAF Plant Database: Fagopyrum dibotrys (Perennial Buckwheat)
Chen, Qing-Fu; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hong-You; Yang, Li-Juan & Cui, Ya-Song (2018). "Recent Progress in Perennial Buckwheat Development". Sustainability. 10 (2): 536. doi:10.3390/su10020536.
T. Sharma; S. Jana (2002). "Species relationships in Fagopyrum revealed by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 105 (2–3): 306–312. doi:10.1007/s00122-002-0938-9. PMID 12582533. S2CID 21623781.
M. Quinet; V. Cawoy; I. Lefevre; F. Van Miegroet; A.-L. Jaquemart; J.-M. Kinet. (2004). "Inflorescence structure and control of flowering time and duration by light in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)". Journal of Experimental Botany. 55 (402): 1509–1517. doi:10.1093/jxb/erh164. PMID 15208346.
Schuster, Tanja M.; Reveal, James L.; Bayly, Michael J. & Kron, Kathleen A. (2015), "An updated molecular phylogeny of Polygonoideae (Polygonaceae): Relationships of Oxygonum, Pteroxygonum, and Rumex, and a new circumscription of Koenigia", Taxon, 64 (6): 1188–1208, doi:10.12705/646.5

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