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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Rosales

Familia: Rosaceae
Subfamilia: Rosoideae
Tribus: Potentilleae
Subtribus: Fragariinae
Genus: Fragaria
Species

F. bucharica – F. chiloensis – F. chinensis – F. corymbosa – F. crinita – F. daltoniana – F. gracilis – F. grandiflora – F. hayatae – F. iinumae – F. iturupensis – F. mandschurica – F. moschata – F. moupinensis – F. nilgerrensis – F. nipponica – F. nubicola – F. orientalis – F. pentaphylla – F. tibetica – F. vesca – F. virginiana – F. viridis
Nothospecies

F. × ananassa – F. × bifera – F. × bringhurstii – F. × intermedia – F. × neglecta – F. × vescana
Name

Fragaria L., 1753
Notes

The genus may be better included in Potentilla according to Mabberley (2002), but this is now rejected Govaerts (2020) and Hassler (2020).
References

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Fragaria in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 22. Reference page.
Hassler, M. May. Fragaria. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. May. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: May 22 {{{3}}}. Reference page.
Mabberley, D.J. 2002. Potentilla and Fragaria (Rosaceae) reunited. Telopea 9:793–801.
Rodríguez, R.A., Marticorena, C.F.S., Alarcón, D., Baeza, C.M., Cavieres, L., Finot, V.L., Fuentes, N., Kiessling, A., Mihoc, M., Pauchard, A., Ruiz, E., Sanchez, P. & Marticorena, A.E. 2018. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Chile. Gayana. Botánica 75(1): 1–430. DOI: 10.4067/S0717-66432018000100001 Reference page.

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Aarbei
Ænglisc: Strēawberge
العربية: شليك
azərbaycanca: Çiyələk
Boarisch: Eadbean
žemaitėška: Žemougė
беларуская: Суніцы
български: Ягода
bosanski: Jagoda
буряад: Гүлзөөргэнэ
corsu: Fraula
čeština: jahodník
dansk: Jordbær-slægten
Deutsch: Erdbeeren
dolnoserbski: Słynica
Ελληνικά: Φράουλα
English: strawberry
Esperanto: Frago
eesti: Maasikas
euskara: Marrubi
فارسی: توت‌فرنگی
võro: Maasik
suomi: Mansikat
Nordfriisk: Eerdbeien
français: Fragaria
Gaeilge: Sú talún
Gàidhlig: sùbh-làir
galego: Amorodo, Morango
עברית: תות שדה
hrvatski: Jagoda
hornjoserbsce: Truskalca
Kreyòl ayisyen: Frèz
magyar: szamóca
հայերեն: Գետնաելակ
íslenska: Jarðarber
italiano: Fragola
日本語: イチゴ
Jawa: Fragaria
ქართული: მარწყვი
қазақша: Бүлдірген
перем коми: Оз
한국어: 딸기속
коми: Оз
Lëtzebuergesch: Äerdbier
lietuvių: Žemuogė
latviešu: Zemenes
мокшень: Късты
македонски: Јагода
монгол: Гүзээлзгэнэ
кырык мары: Изимӧр
Bahasa Melayu: Pokok Strawberi
Nedersaksies: Erebeie
Nederlands: Aardbei
norsk nynorsk: Jordbærslekta
norsk: Jordbærslekta
ирон: Æрыскъæф
polski: poziomka
پښتو: ځمکني توتان
português: Morangueiro
Runa Simi: Muntipuquy
română: Fragaria
русский: Земляника
саха тыла: Дьэдьэн
sicilianu: Fràula
sardu: Fràgula
davvisámegiella: Eanamuorjjit
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Jagoda
slovenčina: jahoda
slovenščina: Jagodnjak
српски / srpski: Јагода
Seeltersk: Äidbäien
svenska: Smultronsläktet
тоҷикӣ: Қулфинай
Türkçe: Çilek
удмурт: Узы
українська: Суниці
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Qulupnay
vèneto: Fraga, Froła, Fràgoła
Tiếng Việt: Dâu tây
ייִדיש: טרוסקאווקע
Zeêuws: Aerebezems
粵語: 士多啤梨屬
中文: 草莓属

Fragaria /frəˈɡɛəriə/[1] is a genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, commonly known as strawberries for their edible fruits. There are more than 20 described species and many hybrids and cultivars. The most common strawberries grown commercially are cultivars of the garden strawberry, a hybrid known as Fragaria × ananassa. Strawberries have a taste that varies by cultivar, and ranges from quite sweet to rather tart. Strawberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the world.

Description

Strawberries are not true berries.[2] The fleshy and edible part of the "fruit" is a receptacle, and the parts that are sometimes mistakenly called "seeds" are achenes and therefore the true botanical fruits.[2][3]
Etymology

The latin name derives from the verb fragro, referring to the aroma of the fruit. Although it is commonly thought that strawberries get their name from straw being used as a mulch in cultivating the plants, the word is possibly derived from "strewn berry" in reference to the runners that "strew" or "stray away" from the base of the plants. David Mikkelson argues that "the word 'strawberry' has been part of the English language for at least a thousand years, well before strawberries were cultivated as garden or farm edibles."[4][5]
Classification

There are more than 20 different Fragaria species worldwide. A number of other species have been proposed, some of which are now recognized as subspecies.[6] One key to the classification of strawberry species is that they vary in the number of chromosomes. They all have seven basic types of chromosomes, but exhibit different polyploidy. Some species are diploid, having two sets of the seven chromosomes (14 chromosomes total), but others are tetraploid (four sets, 28 chromosomes total), hexaploid (six sets, 42 chromosomes total), octoploid (eight sets, 56 chromosomes total), or decaploid (ten sets, 70 chromosomes total).

As a rough rule (with exceptions), strawberry species with more chromosomes tend to be more robust and produce larger plants with larger berries.[7]
Diploid species
Fragaria daltoniana, a species from the Himalayas
Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca), a Northern Hemisphere species
Flower of Fragaria nilgerrensis, an Asian species
Wild strawberries (Fragaria viridis) from Sosnovka, Penza Oblast, Russia
Strawberries (Fragaria viridis) gathered in Buryatia, Russia

Fragaria × bifera Duchesne - F. vesca × F. viridis (Europe)
Fragaria bucharica Losinsk. (China)
Fragaria daltoniana J.Gay (Himalayas)
Fragaria emeiensis Jia J. Lei (China)
Fragaria gracilis Losinsk. (China)
Fragaria iinumae Makino (East Russia, Japan)
Fragaria mandshurica Staudt (China)
Fragaria nilgerrensis Schlecht. ex J.Gay (South and Southeast Asia)
Fragaria nipponica Makino (Korea, Japan)
Fragaria nubicola Lindl. ex Lacaita (Himalayas)
Fragaria pentaphylla Losinsk. (China)
Fragaria vesca L. - woodland strawberry (Northern Hemisphere)
Fragaria viridis Duchesne (Europe, Central Asia)
Fragaria yezoensis H.Hara (Northeast Asia)

Tetraploid species

Fragaria moupinensis Cardot (China)
Fragaria orientalis Losinsk. (Eastern Asia, Eastern Siberia)

Pentaploid hybrids

Fragaria × bringhurstii Staudt (coast of California)

Hexaploid species

Fragaria moschata Duchesne - musk strawberry (Europe)

Octoploid species and hybrids

Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier - garden strawberry, pineapple strawberry
Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Mill. - beach strawberry (Western Americas)
Fragaria chiloensis subsp. chiloensis forma chiloensis
Fragaria chiloensis subsp. chiloensis forma patagonica (Argentina, Chile)
Fragaria chiloensis subsp. lucida (E. Vilm. ex Gay) Staudt (coast of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California)
Fragaria chiloensis subsp. pacifica Staudt (coast of Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California)
Fragaria chiloensis subsp. sandwicensis (Decne.) Staudt - ʻōhelo papa (Hawaiʻi)
Fragaria virginiana Mill. - Virginia strawberry (North America)

Decaploid species and hybrids

Fragaria cascadensis K.E. Hummer (Cascade Mountains in Oregon)[8]
Fragaria iturupensis Staudt - Iturup strawberry (Iturup, Kuril Islands)
Fragaria × Comarum hybrids
Fragaria × vescana

Uncategorized hybrids

'Lipstick' (Fragaria × Comarum hybrid), red-flowered runnering ornamental, sparse small globular fruits.
Fragaria vesca and certain other diploid species can be hybridized and produce fertile offspring (although Fragaria nilgerrensis appears less compatible).[9]
Fragaria moschata can hybridize with diploid species such as Fragaria viridis and Fragaria nubicola but producing a lower proportion of viable seeds.[10]
Fragaria moschata can hybridize with Fragaria × ananassa.[11]

Ecology

A number of species of butterflies and moths feed on strawberry plants: see list of Lepidoptera that feed on strawberry plants.
See also

Accessory fruit
Mock strawberry (Duchesnea/Potentilla indica) and barren strawberry (Potentilla sterilis, Waldsteinia fragarioides) are closely related species in other genera which resemble Fragaria.
Strawberry tree (disambiguation) is a name for several trees that are unrelated to strawberry.
The breeding of strawberries

References

Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
Esau, K. 1977. Anatomy of seed plants. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia: Fragaria virginiana.
"Etymology of Strawberry". Snopes.com. Retrieved 2013-05-08.
Darrow, G.M. (1966). The Strawberry: History, Breeding and Physiology 3. Early History of the Strawberry: 16
"Species records in the database (for the query: genus = Fragaria)". U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. Retrieved 2017-08-24.
Darrow, George M. The Strawberry: History, Breeding and Physiology. New York. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966. online text
Hummer, K.E. (2012). "A new species of Fragaria (Roseaceae) from Oregon". Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 6 (1): 9–15. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
Bors, R.H.; Sullivan, J.A. (2005). "Interspecific Hybridization of Fragaria vesca subspecies with F. nilgerrensis, F. nubicola, F. pentaphylla, and F. viridis" (PDF). J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 130 (3): 418–423. doi:10.21273/JASHS.130.3.418.
Bors, Robert H.; Sullivan, J. Alan (August 1996). "Production of Interspecific Hybrids between Hexaploid Fragaria moschata and the diploid species F. nubicola and F. viridis". HortScience. 31 (4): 610. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.31.4.610b.

Karp, David (July 2006). "Berried Treasure". Smithsonian Magazine.

Further reading

Hogan, Sean (chief consultant) (2003), Flora: A Gardener's Encyclopedia, Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-538-1.

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Biology Encyclopedia

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