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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Iridaceae
Subfamilia: Crocoideae
Tribus: Freesieae
Genus: Freesia
Overview of species

F. alba – F. andersoniae – F. caryophyllacea – F. corymbosa – F. elimensis – F. fergusoniae – F. fucata – F. grandiflora – F. laxa – F. leichtlinii – F. marginata – F. occidentalis – F. praecox – F. refracta – F. sparrmanii – F. speciosa – F. verrucosa – F. viridis
Name

Freesia Eckl. ex Klatt (1866) nom. cons.
Synonyms

Heterotypic
Anomatheca Ker Gawl. in König & Sims, Ann. Bot. 1: 227. 1804.
Type species: A. juncea (L.f.) Ker Gawl.
Nymanina Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 701. 1891.

References
Primary references

Klatt, F.W. 1866. Linnaea 34: 672.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Freesia in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 September 11. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2019. Freesia in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 September 11. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2019. Freesia. Published online. Accessed: 11 September 2019.
Tropicos.org 2019. Freesia. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2019 September 11.

Vernacular names

suomi: Freesiat
italiano: Fresia
日本語: フリージア

Freesia is a genus of herbaceous perennial flowering plants in the family Iridaceae, first described as a genus in 1866 by Christian Friedrich Ecklon (1886) and named after the German botanist and medical practitioner, Friedrich Freese (1795-1876). It is native to the eastern side of southern Africa, from Kenya south to South Africa, most species being found in Cape Provinces.[1] Species of the former genus Anomatheca are now included in Freesia.[1] The plants commonly known as "freesias", with fragrant funnel-shaped flowers, are cultivated hybrids of a number of Freesia species. Some other species are also grown as ornamental plants.
Contents

1 Description
2 Systematics
3 Cultivation and uses
4 References
5 Bibliography
6 External links

Description

They are herbaceous plants which grow from a conical corm 1–2.5 cm (1⁄2–1 in) diameter, which sends up a tuft of narrow leaves 10–30 cm (4–12 in) long, and a sparsely branched stem 10–40 cm (4–16 in) tall bearing a few leaves and a loose one-sided spike of flowers with six tepals. Many species have fragrant narrowly funnel-shaped flowers, although those formerly placed in the genus Anomatheca, such as F. laxa, have flat flowers.

Freesias are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the large yellow underwing.
Systematics

The genus was named in honor of Friedrich Heinrich Theodor Freese (1795–1876), a German physician.[2]

Species[1]

Freesia andersoniae L.Bolus - the Cape Provinces, Free State
Freesia caryophyllacea (Burm.f.) N.E.Br. (syn. F. elimensis L.Bolus, F. parva N.E.Br., F. xanthospila (DC.) Klatt) - Heuningrug region in the Cape Provinces
Freesia corymbosa (Burm.f.) N.E.Br. (syn. F. armstrongii W.Watson, F. brevis N.E.Br.) - the Cape Provinces
Freesia fergusoniae L.Bolus - the Cape Provinces
Freesia fucata J.C.Manning & Goldblatt - Hoeks River Valley in the Cape Provinces
Freesia grandiflora (Baker) Klatt - Zaire, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, northeastern South Africa
Freesia laxa (Thunb.) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning (syn. F. cruenta (Lindl.) Klatt) - from Rwanda + Kenya south to the Cape Provinces; naturalized in Madeira, Mauritius, Réunion, Australia, Florida, Argentina
Freesia leichtlinii Klatt (syn. F. middlemostii F.Barker, F. muirii N.E.Br.) - the Cape Provinces; naturalized in Corsica, California, Florida, Argentina
Freesia marginata J.C.Manning & Goldblatt - the Cape Provinces
Freesia occidentalis L.Bolus (syn. F. framesii L.Bolus) - the Cape Provinces
Freesia praecox J.C.Manning & Goldblatt - the Cape Provinces
Freesia refracta (Jacq.) Klatt (syn. F. hurlingii L.Bolus) - the Cape Provinces; naturalized in France, Canary Islands, Madeira, Bermuda, St. Helena
Freesia sparrmanii (Thunb.) N.E.Br. - Langeberg in the Cape Provinces
Freesia speciosa L.Bolus (syn. F. flava (E.Phillips & N.E.Br.) N.E.Br.) - the Cape Provinces
Freesia verrucosa (B.Vogel) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning (syn. F. juncea (Pourr.) Klatt) - the Cape Provinces
Freesia viridis (Aiton) Goldblatt & J.C.Manning - Namibia, the Cape Provinces

Species of the former genus Anomatheca are now included in Freesia:[1]

Anomatheca cruenta Lindl. = Freesia laxa subsp. laxa
Anomatheca grandiflora Baker = Freesia grandiflora
Anomatheca juncea (Pourr.) Ker Gawl. = Freesia verrucosa
Anomatheca laxa (Thunb.) Goldblatt = Freesia laxa
Anomatheca verrucosa (B.Vogel) Goldblatt = Freesia verrucosa
Anomatheca viridis (Aiton) Goldblatt = Freesia viridis
Anomatheca xanthospila (DC.) Ker Gawl. = Freesia caryophyllacea

Cultivation and uses

The plants usually called "freesias" in horticulture and floristry are derived from crosses made in the 19th century between Freesia refracta and Freesia leichtlinii. Numerous cultivars have been bred from these species and the pink- and yellow-flowered forms of Freesia corymbosa. Modern tetraploid cultivars have flowers ranging from white to yellow, pink, red and blue-mauve. They are mostly cultivated professionally in the Netherlands by about 80 growers.[3] Freesias can be readily increased from seed. Due to their specific and pleasing scent, they are often used in hand creams, shampoos, candles, etc. ; however, the flowers themselves are mainly used in wedding bouquets.

Freesia laxa (formerly called Lapeirousia laxa or Anomatheca cruenta) is one of the other species of the genus which is commonly cultivated. Smaller than the scented freesia cultivars, it has flat rather than cup-shaped flowers.[4][5]

References

Search for "Freesia", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2012-08-13
Manning, John; Goldblatt, Peter (2008). The Iris Family: Natural History & Classification. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. pp. 149–52. ISBN 978-0-88192-897-6.
Dutch flowerpaper, Bloemenkrant, publisher Verhagen, week 12-2015, see also http://issuu.com/twovisions/docs/bk_week_12_15?e=1360358/11894263
Mathew, Brian (1987), The Smaller Bulbs, London: B.T. Batsford, ISBN 978-0-7134-4922-8, p. 9

Innes, Clive (1985), The World of Iridaceae, Ashington, UK: Holly Gate International, ISBN 978-0-948236-01-3, p. 18

Bibliography

Manning, John C.; Goldblatt, Peter (2010). Botany and horticulture of the genus Freesia (Iridaceae). Strelitzia vol. 27. Pretoria: South African National Biodiversity Institute, SANBI. ISBN 978-1-919976-58-7.
Goldblatt, P. (1982) Systematics of Freesia Klatt (Iridaceae) J. South African Bot. 48:39-93.

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