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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Helenieae
Subtribus: Gaillardiinae
Genus: Gaillardia
Species: G. aestivalis - G. amblyodon – G. aristata – G. arizonica – G. cabrerae – G. candelaria – G. coahuilensis – G. comosa – G. gypsophila – G. henricksonii – G. megapotamica – G. mexicana – G. multiceps – G. parryi – G. pinnatifida – G. powellii – G. pulchella – G. spathulata – G. suavis – G. tontalensis – G. turneri
Source(s) of checklist:
Name

Gaillardia Foug., Observ. Phys. 29: 55. 1786.

Type species: Gaillardia pulchella Foug.

Synonyms

Guentheria Spreng.
Galordia Raeusch.
Polypteris Less.
Calonnea Buc'hoz
Cercostylos Less.
Othake Raf.
Agassizia A.Gray & Engelm.

References

Foug., Observations sur la Physique, sur L'Histoire Naturelle et sur les Arts. 29: 55. 1786. (Jul 1786)

Links

International Plant Names Index. 2018. Gaillardia. Published online. Accessed: January 27 2018.
The Plant List 2013. Gaillardia in The Plant List Version 1.1. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 January 27.
Tropicos.org 2018. Gaillardia. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 January 27.
Hassler, M. 2018. Gaillardia. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2018. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2018 January 27. Reference page.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Gaillardia in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: Gaillardia.
Gaillardia Foug. – Taxon details on Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).
Gaillardia – Taxon details on National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).

Vernacular names
čeština: Kokarda
Deutsch: Kokardenblumen
English: Blanket flower
suomi: Sädekukat
magyar: Kokárdavirág
lietuvių: Gailiardija
русский: Гайлардия
slovenčina: Kokarda

Gaillardia /ɡeɪˈlɑːrdiə/[3] (common name blanket flower)[4] is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family, Asteraceae, native to North and South America. It was named after Maître Gaillard de Charentonneau,[5][6] an 18th-century French magistrate who was an enthusiastic botanist. The common name may refer to the resemblance of the inflorescence to the brightly patterned blankets made by Native Americans, or to the ability of wild taxa to blanket the ground with colonies.[7] Many cultivars have been bred for ornamental use.

Description

These are annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs, sometimes with rhizomes. The stem is usually branching and erect to a maximum height around 80 centimeters (31.5 inches). The leaves are alternately arranged. Some taxa have only basal leaves. They vary in shape. They are glandular in most species. The inflorescence is a solitary flower head. The head can have 15 or more ray florets, while some taxa lack any ray florets. They can be almost any shade of yellow, orange, red, purplish, brown, white, or bicolored. They are sometimes rolled into a funnel shape. There are many tubular disc florets at the center of the head in a similar range of colors, and usually tipped with hairs. The fruit usually has a pappus of scales.[8]
Ecology

Gaillardia species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera species, including Schinia bina (which has been recorded on G. pulchella), Schinia masoni (which feeds exclusively on G. aristata) and Schinia volupia (which feeds exclusively on G. pulchella).
red dome blanketflower (Gaillardia pinnatifida)
Gaillardia 'Fanfare'
Symbolism

It is the official flower of Wallonia.
The school colors of Texas State University are maroon and old gold, a combination inspired by the gaillardia.[9]
Species

Species include:[4][10]

Gaillardia aestivalis (Walter) H.Rock – lanceleaf blanketflower southeastern USA
Gaillardia amblyodon J.Gay – maroon blanketflower - Texas
Gaillardia aristata Pursh – common gaillardia - Canada, northern + western USA
Gaillardia arizonica A.Gray – Arizona blanketflower - Sonora, southwestern USA
Gaillardia cabrerae (Lihue Calel, Argentina)
Gaillardia coahuilensis B.L.Turner – bandanna daisy - Coahuila, Texas
Gaillardia comosa A.Gray - northern Mexico
Gaillardia doniana (Hook. & Arn.) Griseb. - Argentina
Gaillardia gypsophila B.L.Turner - Coahuila
Gaillardia henricksonii B.L.Turner - Coahuila
Gaillardia megapotamica (Spreng.) Baker - Argentina[10] – boton de oro
Gaillardia megapotamica var. radiata (San Luis, Argentina)
Gaillardia megapotamica var. scabiosoides
Gaillardia mexicana A.Gray - northeastern Mexico
Gaillardia multiceps Greene – onion blanketflower - Arizona, Texas, New Mexico
Gaillardia parryi Greene – Parry's blanketflower - Utah, Arizona
Gaillardia pinnatifida Torr. – red dome blanketflower - northern Mexico, western USA
Gaillardia powellii B.L.Turner - Coahuila
Gaillardia pulchella Foug. – firewheel - southern + central USA, central Canada, northern Mexico
Gaillardia serotina (Walter) H. Rock - southeastern USA
Gaillardia spathulata A.Gray – western blanketflower - Utah, Colorado
Gaillardia suavis (A.Gray & Engelm.) Britton & Rusby – perfumeballs - northeastern Mexico, south-central USA
Gaillardia tontalensis (San Juan Province, Argentina)
Gaillardia turneri Averett & A.M.Powell - Chihuahua

Hybrids

Gaillardia × grandiflora hort. ex Van Houtte [G. aristata × G. pulchella][10]

Formerly placed here

Helenium amarum (Raf.) H.Rock var. amarum (as G. amara Raf.)
Tetraneuris acaulis (Pursh) Greene var. acaulis (as G. acaulis Pursh)[10]

References

"Genus: Gaillardia Foug". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1998-09-22. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
"Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist". Archived from the original on 2014-11-30. Retrieved 2014-11-27.
Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. 606–07.
"Gaillardia". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
Fougeroux de Bondaroy, Auguste Denis. Observations sur la Physique, sur L'Histoire Naturelle et sur les Arts. 29: 55. 1786. [1]
Fougeroux de Bondaroy, Auguste Denis. Memoires de l'Academie Royale des Sciences Paris 1786: 5. 1788. [2]
Gaillardia × grandiflora. Missouri Botanical Garden.
Gaillardia. Flora of North America.
School Colors. Texas State University–San Marcos.

"GRIN Species Records of Gaillardia". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-02-10.

Further reading
Biddulph, S. F. (1944). "A revision of the genus Gaillardia". Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash. 13: 195–256.

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