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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Ordo: Ericales

Familia: Ericaceae
Subfamilia: Vaccinioideae
Tribus: Gaultherieae
Genus: Gaultheria
Sectiones: G. sect. Brossaea – G. sect. Chamaephyta – G. sect. Chiogenes – G. sect. Chiogenopsis – G. sect. Gaultheria – G. sect. Gymnobotrys – G. sect. Gymnocaulos – G. sect. Leucothoides – G. sect. Monoanthemona – G. sect. Pernettya – G. sect. Pseudogaultheria

Species: G. abbreviata – G. acroleia – G. acuminata – G. adenothrix – G. akaensis – G. albiflora – G. alnifolia – G. amoena – G. anastomosans – G. antarctica – G. antipoda – G. appressa – G. arfakana – G. atjehensis – G. bandongensis – G. barbulata – G. berberidifolia – G. borneensis – G. bracteata – G. bradeana – G. brevistipes – G. bryoides – G. buxifolia – G. caespitosa – G. cardiosepala – G. celebica – G. chiriquensis – G. ciliisepala – G. codonantha – G. colensoi – G. corvensis – G. crassa – G. crassifolia – G. cuneata – G. depressa – G. dialypetala – G. discolor – G. dolichopoda – G. domingensis – G. dumicola – G. elegans – G. erecta – G. eriophylla – G. fendleri – G. foliolosa – G. fragrantissima – G. glaucifolia – G. glomerata – G. gonggashanensis – G. gracilescens – G. gracilis – G. griffithiana – G. hapalotricha – G. heteromera – G. hirta – G. hispida – G. hispidula – G. hookeri – G. howellii – G. humifusa – G. hypochlora – G. insana – G. insipida – G. itatiaiae – G. japonica – G. jingdongensis – G. kamengiana – G. kemiriensis – G. lanceolata – G. lanigera – G. latifolia – G. leiotheca – G. leucocarpa – G. linifolia – G. lohitiensis – G. losirensis – G. lowii – G. macrostigma – G. major – G. malayana – G. marginata – G. marronina – G. marticorenae – G. megalodonta – G. minuta – G. mucronata – G. mundula – G. myrsinoides – G. myrtilloides – G. nivea – G. notabilis – G. novaguineensis – G. nubicola – G. nubigena – G. nummularioides – G. obovata – G. oppositifolia – G. oreogena – G. ovatifolia – G. paniculata – G. parvula – G. paucinervia – G. pennellii – G. pernettyoides – G. phillyreifolia – G. poeppigii – G. praticola – G. procumbens – G. prostrata – G. pseudonotabilis – G. psilocarpa – G. pullei – G. pumila – G. purpurascens – G. purpurea – G. pyrolifolia – G. pyroloides – G. racemulosa – G. rengifoana – G. reticulata – G. rigida – G. rupestris – G. santanderensis – G. schultesii – G. sclerophylla – G. semi-infera – G. serrata – G. seshagiriana – G. setulosa – G. shallon – G. sinensis – G. sleumeri – G. sleumeriana – G. solitaria – G. stenophylla – G. stereophylla – G. steyermarkii – G. straminea – G. strigosa – G. suborbicularis – G. taiwaniana – G. tanythrix – G. tasmanica – G. tenuifolia – G. tetracme – G. tetramera – G. thymifolia – G. tomentosa – G. trichophylla – G. trigonoclada – G. ulei – G. vaccinioides – G. vernalis – G. viridicarpa – G. viridiflora – G. wardii

Notospecies: G. × fagifolia – G. × intermedia – G. × jordanensis – G. × serrulata – G. × wisleyensis
Source(s) of checklist:

Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Gaultheria in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 24. Reference page.


Gaultheria L. (1753)

Type species: G. procumbens L.


Gautiera Raf., Med. Fl. 1: 202. 1828, nom. rej. vs. Gautieria Vittad. (1831), nom. cons.

Brossaea L., Sp. Pl. 1190. 1753.
Type species: B. coccinea L.
× Gaulnettya Marchant, Cat. Choice Trees, etc. 83. 1937.
Type species: ×G. wisleyensis Marchant
Pernettya Gaudich. in Mirb., Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 5: 102. 1825, nom. cons. & orth. cons. (Pernettia).
Type species: P. empetrifolia (Lam.) Gaudich.

Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species plantarum, exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. Tomus I. Pp. [I–XII], 1–560. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae [Stockholm]. BHL Reference page. : 395.


Hassler, M. 2020. Gaultheria. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 24. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Gaultheria in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 24. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. Gaultheria. Published online. Accessed: May 24 2020.
Tropicos.org 2020. Gaultheria. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 May 24.
Farr, E.R. & Zijlstra, G. (eds.) 1996 onwards. Gaultheria in Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Accessed: 2011 Dec 05.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Scheinbeeren
suomi: Salalit

Gaultheria is a genus of about 135 species of shrubs in the family Ericaceae.[1] The name commemorates Jean François Gaultier of Quebec, an honour bestowed by the Scandinavian Pehr Kalm in 1748 and taken up by Carl Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum.[2] These plants are native to Asia, Australasia and North and South America. In the past, the Southern Hemisphere species were often treated as the separate genus Pernettya, but no consistent reliable morphological or genetic differences support recognition of two genera, and they are now united in the single genus Gaultheria.


The species vary from low, ground-hugging shrubs less than 10 cm (3.9 in) tall, up to 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) tall, or, in the case of G. fragrantissima from the Himalayas, even a small tree up to 5–6 m (16–20 ft) tall. The leaves are evergreen, alternate (opposite in G. oppositifolia from New Zealand), simple, and vary between species from 3 to 10 cm (1.2 to 3.9 in) long; the margins are finely serrated or bristly in most species, but entire in some. The flowers are solitary or in racemes, bell-shaped, with a five-lobed (rarely four-lobed) corolla;[1] flower colour ranges from white to pink to red. The fruit is a fleshy berry in many species, a dry capsule in some, with numerous small seeds.

Several species are grown as ornamental shrubs in gardens, particularly G. mucronata (Pernettya mucronata) from southern Chile and Argentina and G. shallon (salal) from the Pacific Northwest of North America. Many of the smaller species are suitable for rock gardens. Like most other ericaceous plants, Gaultheria species do best in peaty soil that never fully dries out.

The fruit of many Gaultheria species is edible, particularly that of salal, which can be used to make jelly. One, the American wintergreen or eastern teaberry, G. procumbens, is the traditional source of wintergreen flavouring; it is called the eastern teaberry because its leaves can be used to make a tea, and its berries can be eaten as are. The fruit of most other Gaultheria species is insipid in flavour and not extensively consumed.

One variety of G. leucocarpa shows anti-inflammatory properties and is used in Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, swelling, and pain.[3]

As of March 2015, The Plant List recognises 141 species, including hybrids:[4]

Gaultheria abbreviata J.J.Sm.
Gaultheria acroleia Sleumer
Gaultheria acuminata Schltdl. & Cham.
Gaultheria adenothrix (Miq.) Maxim.
Gaultheria akaensis S.Panda & Sanjappa
Gaultheria alnifolia (Dunal) A.C.Sm.
Gaultheria amoena A.C.Sm.
Gaultheria anastomosans (Mutis ex L.f.) Kunth
Gaultheria angustifolia Brandegee
Gaultheria antarctica Hook.f.
Gaultheria antipoda G.Forst. - snowberry or fools beech
Gaultheria appressa A.W.Hill - waxberry or white waxberry
Gaultheria arfakana Sleumer
Gaultheria atjehensis J.J.Sm.
Gaultheria barbulata Sleumer
Gaultheria berberidifolia Sleumer
Gaultheria borneensis Stapf
Gaultheria bracteata (Cav.) G.Don
Gaultheria bradeana Sleumer
Gaultheria brevistipes (C.Y.Wu & T.Z.Hsu) R.C.Fang
Gaultheria bryoides P.W.Fritsch & L.H.Zhou
Gaultheria buxifolia Willd.
Gaultheria caespitosa Poepp. & Endl.
Gaultheria cardiosepala Hand.-Mazz.
Gaultheria celebica J.J.Sm.
Gaultheria chiriquensis Camp
Gaultheria codonantha Airy Shaw
Gaultheria colensoi Hook.f.
Gaultheria crassa Allan
Gaultheria cuneata (Rehder & E.H.Wilson) Bean
Gaultheria depressa Hook.f. - mountain snow berry or alpine wax berry
Gaultheria dialypetala Sleumer
Gaultheria dolichopoda Airy Shaw
Gaultheria domingensis Urb.
Gaultheria dumicola W.W.Sm.
Gaultheria elegans (Phil.) Reiche
Gaultheria erecta Vent.
Gaultheria eriophylla (Pers.) Mart. ex Sleumer
Gaultheria × fagifolia Hook.f.
Gaultheria foliolosa Benth.
Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall.
Gaultheria glaucifolia Hemsl.
Gaultheria glomerata (Cav.) Sleumer
Gaultheria gracilescens Sleumer
Gaultheria gracilis Small
Gaultheria griffithiana Wight
Gaultheria hapalotricha A.C.Sm.
Gaultheria heteromera R.C.Fang
Gaultheria hirta Ridl.
Gaultheria hispida R.Br. - snow berry
Gaultheria hispidula (L.) Muhl. ex Bigelow - creeping snowberry or moxie-plum
Gaultheria hookeri C.B.Clarke
Gaultheria howellii (Sleumer) D.J.Middleton
Gaultheria humifusa (Graham) Rydb. - alpine wintergreen or alpine spicy wintergreen
Gaultheria hypochlora Airy Shaw
Gaultheria insana (Molina) D.J.Middleton
Gaultheria insipida Benth. - chichaja
Gaultheria × intermedia J.J.Sm.
Gaultheria itatiaiae Wawra
Gaultheria itoana Hayata
Gaultheria japonica (A.Gray) Sleumer
Gaultheria jingdongensis R.C.Fang
Gaultheria × jordanensis Brade & Sleum.
Gaultheria kemiriensis Sleumer
Gaultheria lanceolata Hook.f.
Gaultheria lanigera Hook.
Gaultheria leschenaultii DC.
Gaultheria leucocarpa Blume
Gaultheria lohitiensis S.Panda & Sanjappa
Gaultheria longibracteolata R.C.Fang
Gaultheria longiracemosa Y.C.Yang
Gaultheria losirensis Sleumer
Gaultheria macrostigma (Colenso) D.J.Middleton
Gaultheria malayana Airy Shaw
Gaultheria marginata (N.E.Br.) D.J.Middleton
Gaultheria megalodonta A.C.Sm.
Gaultheria minuta Merr.
Gaultheria mucronata (L.f.) Hook. & Arn. - prickly heath or chaura
Gaultheria mundula F.Muell.
Gaultheria myrsinoides Kunth
Gaultheria myrtilloides Cham. & Schltdl.
Gaultheria notabilis J.Anthony
Gaultheria novaguineensis J.J.Sm.
Gaultheria nubicola D.J.Middleton
Gaultheria nubigena (Phil.) B.L.Burtt & Sleum.
Gaultheria nummularioides D.Don
Gaultheria oppositifolia Hook.f. - kama, niniwa or snowberry
Gaultheria oreogena A.C.Sm.
Gaultheria ovatifolia A.Gray - western teaberry or Oregon spicy wintergreen
Gaultheria paniculata B.L.Burtt & A.W.Hill
Gaultheria parvula D.J.Middleton
Gaultheria pernettyoides Sleumer
Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer
Gaultheria poeppigii DC.
Gaultheria praticola C.Y.Wu
Gaultheria procumbens L. - eastern teaberry, checkerberry, boxberry, or American wintergreen
Gaultheria prostrata W.W.Sm.
Gaultheria pseudonotabilis H.Li ex R.C.Fang
Gaultheria pullei J.J.Sm.
Gaultheria pumila (L.f.) D.J.Middleton
Gaultheria purpurascens Kunth
Gaultheria purpurea R.C.Fang
Gaultheria pyrolifolia Hook.f. ex C.B.Clarke
Gaultheria pyroloides Hook.f. & Thomson ex Miq.
Gaultheria racemulosa (DC.) D.J.Middleton
Gaultheria rengifoana Phil.
Gaultheria reticulata Kunth
Gaultheria rigida Kunth
Gaultheria rupestris (L.f.) R.Br.
Gaultheria salicifolia Phil.
Gaultheria santanderensis A.C.Sm.
Gaultheria schultesii Camp
Gaultheria sclerophylla Cuatrec.
Gaultheria semi-infera (C.B.Clarke) Airy Shaw
Gaultheria serrata (Vell.) Kin.-Gouv. ex Luteyn
Gaultheria × serrulata Herzog
Gaultheria seshagiriana Subba Rao & Kumari
Gaultheria setulosa N.E.Br.
Gaultheria shallon Pursh - salal, shallon, or gaultheria
Gaultheria sinensis J.Anthony
Gaultheria sleumeri Smitinand & P.H.Hô
Gaultheria sleumeriana Kin.-Gouv.
Gaultheria solitaria Sleumer
Gaultheria stereophylla A.C.Sm.
Gaultheria steyermarkii Luteyn
Gaultheria straminea R.C.Fang
Gaultheria strigosa Benth.
Gaultheria subcorymbosa Colenso
Gaultheria suborbicularis W.W.Sm.
Gaultheria taiwaniana S.S.Ying
Gaultheria tasmanica (Hook.f.) D.J.Middleton
Gaultheria tenuifolia (Phil.) Sleumer
Gaultheria tetramera W.W.Sm.
Gaultheria thymifolia Stapf ex Airy Shaw
Gaultheria tomentosa Kunth
Gaultheria trichophylla Royle - Himalayan snowberry
Gaultheria trigonoclada R.C.Fang
Gaultheria ulei Sleumer
Gaultheria vaccinioides Griseb. ex Wedd.
Gaultheria vernalis Kunze ex DC.
Gaultheria viridiflora Sleumer
Gaultheria wardii C.Marquand & Airy-Shaw


Fang Ruizheng; Peter F. Stevens (2005). "Gaultheria Kalm ex Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 395. 1753; 白珠树属 bai zhu shu shu". In Wu Zhengyi; Peter H. Raven; D. Y. Hong (eds.). Apiaceae through Ericaceae. Flora of China. 14. Beijing and St. Louis: Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. ISBN 9781930723412.
Boivin, Bernard (1979–2016). "Gaultier, Jean-François". Dictionary of Canadian Biography (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
Dan Zhang; Rui Liu; Lan Sun; Chao Huang; Chao Wang; Dong-Ming Zhang; Tian-Tai Zhang; Guan-Hua Du (2011). "Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl salicylate glycosides isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder". Molecules. 16 (5): 3875–3884. doi:10.3390/molecules16053875. PMC 6263312. PMID 21555977.
"Gaultheria". The Plant List. Retrieved March 11, 2015.

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