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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordoo: Rosales

Familia: Rosaceae
Subfamilia: Rosoideae
Tribus: Colurieae
Genus: Geum
Species

G. albiflorum – G. aleppicum – G. andicola – G. boliviense – G. borisii – G. brevicarpellatum – G. bulgaricum – G. calthifolium – G. canadense – G. capense – G. coccineum – G. cockaynei – G. divergens – G. donianum – G. elatum – G. fragarioides – G. geniculatum – G. glaciale – G. heterocarpum – G. hispidum – G. idahoense – G. involucratum – G. iranicum – G. japonicum – G. kokanicum – G. laciniatum – G. latilobum – G. lechlerianum – G. leiospermum – G. lobatum – G. macrophyllum – G. macrosepalum – G. micropetalum – G. molle – G. montanum – G. peckii – G. pentapetalum – G. peruvianum – G. pusillum – G. pyrenaicum – G. quellyon – G. radiatum – G. reptans – G. rhodopeum – G. rivale – G. rossii – G. sikkimense – G. speciosum – G. sylvaticum – G. ternatum – G. triflorum – G. uniflorum – G. urbanum – G. vernum – G. virginianum
Nothospecies

G. × aurantiacum – G. × catlingii – G. × cebennense – G. × gajewskii – G. × gudaricum – G. × gajewskii – G. × heldreichii – G. × intermedium – G. × jankae – G. × macneillii – G. × macranthum – G. × montibericum – G. × pervale – G. × pratense – G. × pulchrum – G. × rhaeticum – G. × sudeticum – G. × teszlense – G. × thomasianum – G. × velenovskyi
Name

Geum L. (1753)

Type species: G. urbanum L.

Synonyms

Homotypic
Caryophyllata Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4 (1754), nom. illeg.
Geum sect. Caryophyllastrum Ser., Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 2: 138–139 (1824), nom. illeg.
Geum sect. Eugeum Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 696 (1873), nom. illeg.
Geum sect. Geoidea Rouy & E.G.Camus, Fl. France 6: 158 (1900) [1], nom. illeg.
Geum ser. Urbana Juz. in Kom. (ed.), Fl. URSS 10: 259 (1941), nom. illeg.
Geum subg. Caryophyllata A.Gray, Manual, ed. 2. 117 (1856).
Geum subg. Eugeum (Boiss.) Rouy & E.G.Camus, Fl. France 6: 157 (1900) [2], nom. illeg.
Streptilon Raf., Aut. Bot. 173 (1840).
Geunsia Raf., Aut. Bot. 200 (1840), nom. illeg. non Blume (1823).

Heterotypic
Acomastylis Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 174 (1906).
Acomastylis subg. Micracomastylis F.Bolle, Repert. Sp. Nov. Beih. 72: 85 (1933).
Geum sect. Micracomastylis (F.Bolle) Gajewski, Monogr. Bot. 4: 25 (1957).
Geum subg. Micracomastylis (F.Bolle) Gajewski, Monogr. Bot. 4: 25 (1957).
Geum subg. Micracomastylis (F.Bolle) K.R.Robertson, J. Arnold Arbor. 55(3): 384 1974, comb. superfl.
Type species: A. rossii (Ser.) Greene
Acomastylis subg. Megacomastylis F.Bolle, Repert. Sp. Nov. Beih. 72: 85 (1933).
Coluria R.Br., Chlor. Melv. 18 (1823).
Type species: C. geoides (Pall.) Ledeb.
Erythrocoma Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 175 (1906) BHL.
Geum subg. Erythrocoma (Greene) H.E.Weber Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-Europa, ed. 3, 4(2a): 625 (1995).
Type species: non design.
Geopatera Pau, Not. Bot. Fl. Españ. 6: 50 (1895).
Geum sect. Orthurus Boiss., Fl. Orient. 2: 698 (1872)-73.
Orthurus (Boiss.) Juz. in Kom. (ed.), Fl. URSS 10: 262, 616 (1941), nom. illeg.
Type species: G. umbraticola Pau, nom. illeg.
Geum [unranked] Orthostylus C.A.Mey. in Fisch., C.A. Mey. & Avé-Lall., Index Sem. Hort. Petrop. 11, Suppl. 50 (1846).
Geum sect. Megacomastylis (F.Bolle) Gajewski, Polsk. Towarz. Bot. Monogr. 4: 25 (1957).
Geum subg. Megacomastylis (F.Bolle) H.E.Weber, Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-Europa, ed. 3, 4(2a): 625 (1995).
Type species: G. calthifolium Menzies ex Sm.
Geum sect. Caryophyllata Ser., Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 2: 139 (1824), nom. alt.
Type species: G. rivale L.
Geum sect. Eusieversia Rouy & E.G.Camus, Fl. France 6: 165 (1900) [3], nom. illeg.
Type species: G. montanum L.
Geum sect. Caryophyllata Ser., Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 2: 139 (1824), nom. alt.
Type species: G. rivale L.
Geum sect. Gmeliniana (Tratt.) F.Bolle, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 72: 46 (1933).
Geum sect. Murrayana (Tratt.) F.Bolle, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 72: 54 (1933).
Geum sect. Oncostylus Schltdl., Linnaea 28: 465 (1856).
Oncostylus (Schltdl.) F.Bolle, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 72: 27 (1933).
Type species: G. lechlerianum Schltdl.
Geum sect. Sieversia F.Muell., Trans. Philos. Soc. Victoria 2.: 66 (1857).
Type species: G. renifolium F.Muell., nom. illeg.
Geum ser. Grandiflora Juz. in Kom. (ed.), Fl. URSS 10: 253 (1941), nom. illeg.
Geum ser. Macrophylla Juz. in Kom. (ed.), Fl. URSS 10: 256 (1941), nom. illeg.
Geum subg. Constrictohirtistylis Panigrahi & K.M.Purohit, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 26(3–4): 238 (1986).
Novosieversia F.Bolle, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 72: 23 (1933).
Geum sect. Novosieversia (F.Bolle) H.E.Weber, Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-Europa, ed. 3, 4(2a): 625 (1995).
Type species: N. glaciale (Adams ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) F.Bolle
Oncostylus subg. Palaeoncostylus F.Bolle , Repert. Sp. Nov. Beih. 72: 28 (1933).
Geum subg. Palaeoncostylus (Greene) H.E.Weber, Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-Europa, ed. 3, 4(2a): 625 (1995).
Type species: G. andicola
Geum sect. Oreogeum Ser., Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 2: 139 (1824).
Geum subg. Oreogeum Ser., Mém. Soc. Phys. Genève 2: 139 (1824).
Geum subg. Oreogeum (Ser.) F.Bolle, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 72: 40 (1933), comb. superfl.
Oreogeum (Ser.) E.I.Golubk., Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 72(6): 772 (1987).
Parageum subg. Oreogeum (Ser.) M.Král, Preslia 38(2): 152 (1966).
Type species: G. montanum L.
Geum sect. Sieversioides F.Bolle, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 72: 41 (1933).
Streptilon Raf., Autik. Bot. 173 (1840).
Stylypus Raf., Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. 7: 387 (1821).
Stypostylis Raf., Ann. Gén. Sci. Phys. 7: 387 (1821).
Geum subg. Stylypus (Raf.) F.Bolle (1933)
Type species: S. vernus Raf.
Taihangia T.T.Yü & C.L.Li, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 18: 471 (1980).
Type species: T. rupestris T.T.Yü & C.L.Li
Waldsteinia Willd., Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin Neue Schriften 2: 105 (1799).
Type species: W. geoides Willd.
Woronowia Juz. in Kom. (ed.), Fl. URSS 10: 250, 615 (1941).
Geum subg. Woronowia (Juz.) H.E.Weber, Illustrierte Flora von Mittel-Europa, ed. 3, 4(2a): 626 (1995).
Type species: W. speciosa (Alboff) Juz.

Homonyms

Geum Mill. (1754) = Saxifragaceae genus.

Recent phylogenic research suggest that many of the previous groupings are not monophyletic, so the treatment here are only tentative and may change in the near future (Smedmark 2006).

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 500. Reference page.
Farr, E. R. & Zijlstra, G. eds. (1996-) Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum) (2010) May 23 [4].
Gajewski, W. 1957. A cytogenetic study on the genus Geum. Monographiae Botanicae, 4. PDF Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Geum in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2020 May 26. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2020. Geum. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2020. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2020 May 26. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2020. 26. Published online. Accessed: May 2020.
Smedmark, J.E.E. & Eriksson, T. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of Geum (Rosaceae) and relatives inferred from the nrITS and trnL-trnF regions. Systematic Botany 27: 303—317.
Smedmark, J.E.E. 2006. Recircumscription of Geum (Colurieae: Rosaceae). Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 126(4): 409-417. DOI: 10.1127/0006-8152/2006/0126-0409 Paywall ResearchGate .

Vernacular names
العربية: حشيشة المبارك
azərbaycanca: Çınqılotu
български: Омайниче
čeština: kuklík
dansk: Nellikerod
Deutsch: Nelkenwurzen
English: Avens
Esperanto: Geumo
eesti: Mõõl
فارسی: علف مبارک
suomi: Kellukat
français: Benoîte
Gaeilge: Macall
hornjoserbsce: Kuklik
magyar: Gyömbérgyökér
հայերեն: Մարեմխոտ
íslenska: Biskupshattar
italiano: Geum
日本語: ダイコンソウ属
қазақша: Шыршай
lietuvių: Žiognagė
latviešu: Bitenes
Nederlands: Nagelkruid
norsk nynorsk: Humleblom
norsk: Humleblomslekta
polski: Kuklik
русский: Гравилат
slovenčina: kuklík
svenska: Nejlikrotssläktet
українська: Гравілат
Tiếng Việt: Acomastylis


Geum /ˈdʒiːəm/,[1] commonly called avens, is a genus of about 50 species of rhizomatous perennial herbaceous plants in the rose family and its subfamily Rosoideae, widespread across Europe, Asia, North and South America, Africa, and New Zealand. They are closely related to Potentilla and Fragaria. From a basal rosette of leaves, they produce flowers on wiry stalks, in shades of white, red, yellow, and orange, in midsummer. Geum species are evergreen except where winter temperatures drop below 0 °F (−18 °C). The cultivars 'Lady Stratheden'[2] (with yellow flowers), and 'Mrs J. Bradshaw'[3] (with orange flowers) have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[4]

Geum species are used as food by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the grizzled skipper.
Selected species

Geum albiflorum
Geum aleppicum – yellow avens or common avens[5]
Geum bulgaricum
Geum calthifolium
Geum canadense – white avens
Geum × catlingii – Catling's avens
Geum coccineum – dwarf orange avens
Geum elatum
Geum geniculatum – bent avens
Geum heterocarpum
Geum japonicum - Asian herb bennet (medicinal herb)
Geum laciniatum – rough avens
Geum leiospermum
Geum macrophyllum – largeleaf avens
Geum molle
Geum montanum – Alpine avens
Geum parviflorum
Geum peckii – mountain avens
Geum pentapetalum
Geum pyrenaicum
Geum quellyon – scarlet avens or Chilean avens
Geum radiatum – spreading avens, Appalachian avens, and cliff avens
Geum reptans – creeping avens
Geum rhodopeum
Geum rivale – water avens or purple avens[6]
Geum rossii – Alpine avens
Geum sikkimense
Geum sylvaticum
Geum talbotianum – Tasmanian snowrose
Geum triflorum – prairie smoke or three-flowered avens[7]
Geum turbinatum
Geum uniflorum
Geum urbanum – wood avens or herb Bennet
Geum vernum – spring avens
Geum virginianum – cream avens or Virginia avens

For a more detailed list see List of Geum species.
Geum 'Beech House'
Geum vernum developing fruit
References

Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
"RHS Plant selector". Retrieved 10 July 2020.
"RHS Plant selector". Retrieved 10 July 2020.
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 43. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
Dickinson, T.; Metsger, D.; Bull, J.; Dickinson, R. (2004). The ROM Field Guide to Wildflowers of Ontario. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum. p. 367. ISBN 0771076525. OCLC 54691765.
Dickinson et al. 2004, p. 368
Dickinson et al. 2004, p. 369

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