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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Nepetoideae
Tribus: Mentheae
Subtribus: Nepetinae
Genus: Glechoma
Species: G. biondiana – G. grandis – G. hederacea – G. hirsuta – G. longituba – G. sardoa – G. sinograndis
Nothospecies: G. × pannonica
Name

Glechoma L., Sp. Pl. 2: 578 (1753) nom. et orth. cons.

Type species: Glechoma hederacea L., Sp. Pl. 2: 578 (1753)

Synonymy

Heterotypic
Chamaeclema Moench, Methodus: 393 (1794)
Glechonion St.-Lag., Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 126 (1880)
Chamaecissos Lunell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 4: 516 (1916)
Meehaniopsis Kudô, Mem. Fac. Sci. Taihoku Imp. Univ. 2: 236 (1929)

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Europe
Northern Europe
Denmark, Finland, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, Sweden,
Middle Europe
Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland,
Southwestern Europe
Corse, France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain,
Southeastern Europe
Albania, Bulgaria, Greece,itzerland.html">Switzerland, Italy, Romania, Sicilia, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia,
Eastern Europe
Belarus, Baltic States, Krym, Central European Russia, East European Russia, North European Russia, South European Russia, Northwest European Russia, Ukraine,
Africa
Northern Africa
Morocco (doubtful)
Asia-Temperate
Siberia
Altay, Irkutsk Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, West Siberia, Yakutiya,
Russian Far East
Amur, Khabarovsk, Primorye,
Middle Asia
Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan,
Caucasus
North Caucasus, Transcaucasus,
Western Asia
Turkey,
China
China South-Central, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria, China North-Central, China Southeast, Xinjiang,
Eastern Asia
Japan, Korea, Taiwan,
Asia-Tropical
Indo-China
Vietnam.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus II: 578. Reference page.

Links

Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2022. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Glechoma. Accessed: 2022 Apr 11.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Glechoma in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Apr 11. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Glechoma in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Apr 11. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2022. Glechoma. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2022. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Apr 11. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Glechoma. Published online. Accessed: 11 Apr 2022.
Tropicos.org 2022. Glechoma. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 11 Apr 2022.

Vernacular names

azərbaycanca: Yersarmaşığı
تۆرکجه: یئرسارماشیغی
беларуская: Блюшчык
čeština: Popenec
dansk: Korsknap
Deutsch: Gundermann
English: Ground Ivies
Esperanto: Glekomo
suomi: Maahumalat
magyar: Repkény
日本語: カキドオシ属
ქართული: ოშოშა
қазақша: Барқытжапырақ
lietuvių: Tramažolė
polski: Bluszczyk
русский: Будра
slovenčina: Zádušník
svenska: Jordrevesläktet
українська: Розхідник
中文: 活血丹属

Glechoma is a genus of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, first described for modern science in 1753. It is distributed in northern Asia and Europe with a center of diversity in Asia, especially China. One species is naturalized in New Zealand and in North America.[1][2][3][4]

These plants are perennial herbs with stolons. The stems are prostrate or upright and bear leaf blades on long petioles. The inflorescences arising from the leaf axils have two to many flowers. The tubular corolla has two lobed lips,[3] and is generally blue-violet.[2] The genus is closely related to Marmoritis[2] but closer still to Meehania, and some species have in the past been moved between the latter genus and Glechoma.[5]

Species
[1]

Glechoma biondiana (Diels) C.Y.Wu & C.Chen - Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Shaanxi, Sichuan
Glechoma grandis (A.Gray) Kuprianova - Japan, Taiwan, Jiangsu
Glechoma hederacea L. – ground-ivy, creeping charlie - much of Europe, much of Russia, Central Asia, Xinjiang; naturalized in New Zealand and North America
Glechoma hirsuta Waldst. & Kit. - eastern and southeastern Europe
Glechoma longituba (Nakai) Kuprian. - Vietnam, Korea, eastern + central China, Russian Far East (Amur, Primorye)
Glechoma × pannonica Borbás - eastern Russia, Ukraine, Hungary, Baltic Republics (G. hederacea × G. hirsuta)
Glechoma sardoa Halácsy & Wettst. - Sardinia
Glechoma sinograndis C.Y.Wu - Yunnan


Etymology

Glechoma is said to derive from the Greek name glechon for pennyroyal, Mentha pulegium.[6]
Ecology

Insects found on Glechoma include the carpenter bee Xylocopa sinensis, which robs nectar from G. longituba.[7]
References

Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Jang, T. and S. Hong. (2010). Comparative pollen morphology of Glechoma and Marmoritis (Nepetinae, Lamiaceae). Journal of Systematics and Evolution 48(6), 464-73.
Flora of China Vol. 17 Page 118 活血丹属 huo xue dan shu Glechoma Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 578. 1753.
Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution map
Deng, Tao et al. (2015): Does the Arcto-Tertiary Biogeographic Hypothesis Explain the Disjunct Distribution of Northern Hemisphere Herbaceous Plants? The Case of Meehania (Lamiaceae). PLOS ONE 10(2): e0117171. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117171 (Fulltext)
"Glechoma hederacea, Ground-ivy: identification, distribution, habitat". www.first-nature.com. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
Zhang, Y. W., et al. (2007). Nectar robbing of a carpenter bee and its effects on the reproductive fitness of Glechoma longituba (Lamiaceae). Plant Ecology 193(1), 1-13.

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