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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamilia: Amaryllidoideae
Tribus: Hippeastreae
Subtribus: Hippeastrinae
Genus: Habranthus
Species: H. albispiritus – H. argentinus – H. cardenasianus – H. catamarcensis – H. chichimeca – H. concinnus – H. conzattii – H. cordobensis – H. erectus – H. gracilifolius – H. lacteus – H. maasii – H. mendocensis – H. niveus – H. oltanus

Name

Habranthus Herb., Bot. Mag. 51: t. 2464. (1824)

Type species: Habranthus gracilifolius Herb., Bot. Mag. 51: t. 2464. (1824)

Note: Partially synonymised with Zephyranthes, however, the above combinations have no legitimate equivalents or analyses are incomplete, until this happens the proposed full synonymy with Zephyranthes under Zephyranthes subg. Habranthus (García et al., 2019) is not possible.
References

Herbert, W. 1824. Curtis's Botanical Magazine; or, Flower-Garden Displayed... London, t. 2464
García, N., Meerow, A.W., Arroyo‐Leuenberger, S., Oliveira, R.S., Dutilh, J.H.A., Soltis, P.S. & Judd, W.S. 2019. Generic classification of Amaryllidaceae tribe Hippeastreae. Taxon 68(3): 481–498. DOI: 10.1002/tax.12062 Paywall PDF Reference page.
García, N. & Meerow, A.W. 2020. Corrigendum to: García & al., Generic classification of Amaryllidaceae tribe Hippeastreae [in Taxon 68: 481–498. 2019] Taxon 69(1): 208–209. DOI: 10.1002/tax.12208 Open access Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2020. Habranthus in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2020 July 31. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Habranthus. Published online. Accessed: Jan. 1 2013.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2019. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Habranthus. .

Habranthus (copperlily)[1] is a genus of tender herbaceous flowering bulbs in the subfamily Amaryllidoideae of the family Amaryllidaceae.[2] The genus was first identified by pioneering bulb enthusiast William Herbert in 1824. The species are native to the Americas, from (Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Mexico, Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay), but several species are naturalized in other parts of the world West Indies, India, South Africa, Mauritius, Colombia, Easter Island, and the southeastern United States.[3]

Description

Along with Zephyranthes and Cooperia, Habranthus is one of several related genera commonly known as rain lilies. All three have starry, funnel-shaped flowers and are native to tropical and semi-tropical regions of the Americas. Flowers are either solitary or in umbels of up to 4 flowers,[4] and typically appear in late spring through to autumn in response to rain. Individual bulbs are often capable of blooming more than once per year.[5]

Habranthus is distinct from Zephyranthes in holding its flowers at an angle rather than upright and in having unequal stamens.[6] It also has less symmetrical flowers.

Taxonomy

At one stage, Habranthus was considered a subgenus of the closely related Hippeastrum.[7] Now it is located in tribe Hippeastreae, subtribe Hippeastrinae.

Cultivation

In the United States, Habranthus, like other rain lilies, is regarded as an "heirloom plant", although it is not widely used in mainstream landscapes, perhaps because its bloom time, dependent on rain, is erratic. Nevertheless, the bulbs are rugged and easy to grow in USDA Hardiness Zones 8-10 and are recognized among bulb specialists as possessing distinct landscape value in appropriate areas of the world.[8] In colder regions they may be grown in sheltered sites, or in pots kept frost-free in winter.[6]

The most commonly grown species are the pink-flowered H. robustus and the yellow-flowered H. tubispathus.[6]

Habranthus robustus

Habranthus tubispathus, Denton, Texas

List of species

The list of species accepted by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families as of May 2011 is shown below.[9]

Habranthus albispiritus Ravenna
Habranthus amambaicus Ravenna
Habranthus andalgalensis Ravenna
Habranthus araguaiensis Ravenna
Habranthus arenicola (Brandegee) Flagg
Habranthus auratus Ravenna
Habranthus bahiensis Ravenna
Habranthus barrosianus Hunz. & Di Fulvio
Habranthus botumirimensis R.S.Oliveira
Habranthus brachyandrus (Baker) Sealy
Habranthus caaguazuensis Ravenna
Habranthus caeruleus (Griseb.) Traub
Habranthus calderensis Ravenna
Habranthus cardenasianus Traub & I.S.Nelson
Habranthus carmineus Ravenna
Habranthus catamarcensis Ravenna
Habranthus chacoensis Ravenna
Habranthus chichimeca (T.M.Howard & S.Ogden) Flagg
Habranthus concinnus Ravenna
Habranthus conzattii (Greenm.) Flagg
Habranthus cordobensis Ravenna
Habranthus correntinus Roitman
Habranthus crassibulbus Ravenna
Habranthus datensis Ravenna
Habranthus duarteanus Ravenna
Habranthus erectus Ravenna
Habranthus estensis Ravenna
Habranthus gameleirensis Ravenna
Habranthus goianus Ravenna
Habranthus gracilifolius Herb.
Habranthus guachipensis Ravenna
Habranthus immaculatus Traub & Clint
Habranthus irwinianus Ravenna
Habranthus ischihualastus Ravenna
Habranthus itaobinus Ravenna
Habranthus jamesonii (Baker) Ravenna
Habranthus jujuyensis (E.Holmb.) Traub
Habranthus lacteus (S.Moore) Ravenna
Habranthus leonensis Ravenna
Habranthus leptandrus Ravenna
Habranthus longifolius (Hemsl.) Flagg
Habranthus longipes (Baker) Sealy
Habranthus lucidus R.S.Oliveira
Habranthus maasii Ravenna
Habranthus magnoi Ravenna
Habranthus martinezii Ravenna
Habranthus matacus Ravenna
Habranthus medinae L.O.Alvarado & García-Mend.
Habranthus mendocensis (Baker) Sealy
Habranthus mexicanus T.M.Howard
Habranthus microcarpus (Rusby) Ravenna
Habranthus millarensis Ravenna
Habranthus minor Ravenna
Habranthus neumannii Roitman
Habranthus niveus Ravenna
Habranthus nullipes Ravenna
Habranthus oaxacanus T.M.Howard
Habranthus oltanus Ravenna
Habranthus oranensis Ravenna
Habranthus pantanalensis Ravenna
Habranthus pedunculosus Herb.
Habranthus philadelphicus Ravenna
Habranthus pictus Ravenna
Habranthus quilmesianus Ravenna
Habranthus riojanus Ravenna
Habranthus robustus Herb. ex Sweet - Pink Rain Lily
Habranthus ruber Ravenna
Habranthus ruizlealii Ravenna
Habranthus saipinensis Ravenna
Habranthus salinarum Ravenna
Habranthus saltensis Ravenna
Habranthus sanavirone Roitman
Habranthus schulzianus Ravenna
Habranthus spectabilis Ravenna
Habranthus steyermarkii Ravenna
Habranthus sylvaticus (Mart. ex Schult. & Schult.f.) Herb.
Habranthus tepicensis Greenm. ex Flagg & G.Lom.Sm.
Habranthus teretifolius (C.H.Wright) Traub & Moldenke
Habranthus tubispathus (L'Hér.) Traub - Copper Lily
Habranthus unifolius (Arechav.) Traub
Habranthus venturianus Ravenna
Habranthus vittatus T.M.Howard

See also

List of plants known as lily

References

"Habranthus". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
Stevens, P.F., Angiosperm Phylogeny Website: Asparagales: Amaryllidoideae
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Habranthus
Flagg, Raymond O.; Smith, Gerald L. & Flory, Walter S. (1982), "Habranthus", in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.), Flora of North America, Oxford University Press, p. 55, retrieved 2015-02-11
Fellers, John D. "A Passion for Rainlilies: Cooperia, Habranthus, and Zephyranthes." Herbertia 51, 1996, pp 78-112
Mathew, Brian (1987), The Smaller Bulbs, London: B.T. Batsford, ISBN 978-0-7134-4922-8, p. 101
Baker, John Gilbert (1888). "Hippeastrum". Handbook of the Amaryllideæ including the Alstrœmerieæ and Agaveæ. London: Bell. p. 41. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
Ogden, Scott. Garden Bulbs for the South. Dallas, TX: Taylor Publishing Co., 1994, pp 5-27

WCSP (2011), World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2011-05-23, search for "Habranthus"

Howard, Thad M. Bulbs for Warm Climates. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2001, pp 77–82.

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