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Hamamelis vernalis

Hamamelis vernalis

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Ordo: Saxifragales

Familia: Hamamelidaceae
Subfamilia: Hamamelidoideae
Genus: Hamamelis
Species: Hamamelis vernalis
Name

Hamamelis vernalis Sarg., 1908
Synonyms

Hamamelis vernalis var. tomentella (Rehder) Palmer

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Northern America
Regional: Southern Central USA
Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Sargent, C.S., 1908. Trees and Shrubs 2:137.

Additional references

Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2021. Hamamelis vernalis in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2021 Oct 06. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. Oct. Hamamelis vernalis. Published online. Accessed: 06 Oct.
Tropicos.org 2021. Hamamelis vernalis. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 06 Oct 2021.
Hassler, M. 2021. Hamamelis vernalis. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2021. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2021 Oct 06. Reference page.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Hamamelis vernalis in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06..}}

Vernacular names
беларуская: гамамеліс вясенні
Deutsch: Frühlings-Zaubernuss
English: Ozark witchhazel
svenska: Småblommig trollhassel

Hamamelis vernalis, the Ozark witchhazel[1] (or witch-hazel)[2] is a species of flowering plant in the witch-hazel family Hamamelidaceae, native to the Ozark Plateau in central North America, in Missouri, Oklahoma, and Arkansas.[3] It is a large deciduous shrub growing to 4 m (13 ft) tall.

Description

Hamamelis vernalis spreads by stoloniferous root sprouts. The leaves are oval, 7–13 cm (2+3⁄4–5 in) long and 6.7–13 cm (2+5⁄8–5+1⁄8 in) broad, cuneate to slightly oblique at the base, acute or rounded at the apex. They have a wavy-toothed or shallowly lobed margin, and a short, stout petiole 7–15 mm (0.28–0.59 in) long. The leaves are dark green above, and glaucous beneath, and often persist into the early winter.

The flowers are deep to bright red, rarely yellow, with four ribbon-shaped petals 7–10 mm (0.28–0.39 in) long and four short stamens, and grow in clusters. Flowering begins in mid winter and continues until early spring. The Latin specific epithet vernalis means "spring-flowering".[4]

The fruit is a hard woody capsule 10–15 mm (3⁄8–5⁄8 in) long, which splits explosively at the apex at maturity one year after pollination, ejecting the two shiny black seeds up to 10 m (33 ft) distant from the parent plant.

Although often occurring with the related Hamamelis virginiana, H. vernalis does not intergrade, and can be distinguished by its flowering in late winter (December to March in its native range), rather than fall.[3][5]
Cultivation and uses

Hamamelis vernalis is valued in cultivation for its strongly scented flowers appearing in late winter, when little else is growing. Several cultivars have been selected, mainly for variation in flower color, including 'Carnea' (pink flowers), 'Red Imp' (petals red with orange tips), and 'Squib' (vivid yellow flowers).[3][6]

New foliage, spent flowers
Hamamelis vernalis (Ozark Witch-hazel) (32157870000).jpg
Hamamelis vernalis ( Ozark Witch-hazel, Vernal Witch-hazel) (34280102006).jpg

References

USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Hamamelis vernalis". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
"Hamamelis vernalis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
Meyer, Frederick G. (1997). "Hamamelis vernalis". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 3. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315.
Meyer, Frederick G. (1997). "Hamamelis". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). Vol. 3. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.

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