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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamilia: Amaryllidoideae
Tribus: Galantheae
Genus: Hannonia
Species: H. hesperidum

Hannonia Braun-Blanq. et Maire, 1931.

The International Plant Names Index Hannonia.
Braun-Blanquet, Josias - Maire, Réné Charles Joseph Ernest, 1931: in Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord, xxii. 104.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2019. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Hannonia (Amaryllidaceae). .

Hannonia is a genus of plants in the Amaryllis family.[1] It contains only one known species, Hannonia hesperidum, endemic to Morocco and confined to Western Morocco, Promontory of Hercules.[2][3][4] The specific name comes from Greek έσπερος, of evening, as the flowers open in the late afternoon.


The bulbs are 20-25x20 mm., with brown papery tunics; they have a long neck about 4 cm long. The species is hysteranthous. Scape about 10 cm high, 2-edged, a little twisted, hollow (according to;[5] solid according to [6]), terete; umbel two-flowered. Outermost leaf reduced to a scarious sheath with a very short blade, inner leaves 2 or 3, linear, fleshy, glaucous, flat, just 2 mm wide and 20 cm long. Spathe bracts two, free, but appressed to the scape below their middle. The pedicel is 1 cm, green; the perianth has a short green tube, 5 mm, much shorter than the tepal segments, spreading in six white tepals, 15 mm long and 2.5 mm wide, linear-lanceolate, a bit broadened below the apex, gradually attenuate (narrowing) towards the base, subequal (nearly equal), keeled green on the abaxial surface, keel formed by 3 closely spaced veins. The stamens are biseriate, free, inserted at the throat, 3 equaling the tepals, 3 shorter; filaments filiform; anthers dorsifixed (attached to the filaments at their middle), oblong, versatile, yellow; style white, filiform, and terete. Stigma captitate, obscurely 3-lobed. Ovary with 3 locules; ovules 5-6 per locule.[7][5]

Flowering period: late summer. Each flower lasts just one day. No scent. Grows in rock-fissures, a very sandy-gritty soil is needed in cultivation. No water in summer and very little in winter. In areas which experience frost a frost-free bulb frame or a greenhouse have to be used. Full sun.

This genus was placed in tribe Galantheae by Traub[5] on the basis of morphology only; molecular investigations are inconclusive.[8]

The name Hannonia hesperidum var. legionariorum was coined in 1935[9] for a Moroccan plant initially thought to be a variety of Hannonia hesperidum. The name is, however, now considered a synonym of Vagaria ollivieri in the genus Vagaria.[2][10][11]

Braun-Blanquet, Josias & Maire, René Charles Joseph Ernest. 1931. Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de l'Afrique du Nord. Algiers 22: 104
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
Maire, R. (1960). Flore de l'Afrique du Nord 6: 1-397. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.
Plant Biodiversity of South-Western Morocco, Hannonia hesperidum
Traub 1963
Hannibal, L.S. 1967. A primitive amaryllid - Hannonia hesperidium. Plant Life 23: 143-144.
Meerow & Snijman 1998
Meerow et al. 2000
Emberger, Marie Louis 1935. Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Naturelles du Maroc 15: 175
Maire, René Charles Joseph Ernest 1936. Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de l'Afrique du Nord 27: 78

Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève

Jimenez, H.J.; da Silva, A.D.F.; Martins, L.S.S.; de Carvalho, R.; de Moraes Filho, R. M. (2020). "Comparative genomics plastomes of the Amaryllidaceae family species". Scientia Plena. 16 (6): 1–10. doi:10.14808/sci.plena.2020.060202. Full text
Meerow, Alan W.; Snijman, Deirdre A. (1998), "Amaryllidaceae", in Kubitzki, Klaus (ed.), The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. III, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg GmbH, pp. 83–110, doi:10.1007/978-3-662-03533-7, ISBN 978-3-642-08377-8, S2CID 30159571
Meerow, A.W.; Fay, M.F.; Chase, M.F.; Guy, C.L.; Li, Q.-B.; Snijman, Deirdre; Yang, Si-Lin (2000). "Phylogeny of Amaryllidaceae: Molecules and morphology". In Wilson, K. L.; Morrison, D. A. (eds.). Monocots : Systematics and evolution (Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Comparative Biology of the Monocotyledons, Sydney, Australia 1998). Collingwood, VIC, Australia: CSIRO. pp. 372–386. ISBN 978-0-643-06437-9. OCLC 52840686. Retrieved 14 January 2014.Excerpts
Traub, H.P. (1963). Genera of the Amaryllidaceae. La Jolla, California: American Plant Life Society.

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