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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Helenieae
Subtribus: Gaillardiinae
Genus: Helenium
Sectiones: H. sect. Actinea – H. sect. Amarum – H. sect. Cephalophora – H. sect. Hecubaea – H. sect. Helenium – H. sect. Leptopoda – H. sect. Tetrodus

Species overview: H. amarum – H. apterum – H. argentinum – H. arizonicum – H. aromaticum – H. atacamense – H. autumnale – H. bigelovii – H. bolanderi – H. brevifolium – H. campestre – H. centrale – H. chihuahuensis – H. donianum – H. drummondii – H. elegans – H. flexuosum – H. glaucum – H. insulare – H. laciniatum – H. linifolium – H. mexicanum – H. microcephalum – H. ovallense – H. pinnatifidum – H. puberulum – H. quadridentatum – H. radiatum – H. scaposum – H. scorzoneraefolium – H. stenopterum – H. thurberi – H. urmenetae – H. vallenariense – H. vernale – H. virginicum
Source(s) of checklist:
CatalogueofLife
Name

Helenium L. (1753)

Type species: H. autumnale L.

Synonyms

Homotypic
Helenia Mill. (1754), orth. var.
Heleniastrum Fabr., Enum. ed. 2. 143. 1763.

Heterotypic
Actinea Juss., Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 2: 425. t. 61. 1803.
Actinella Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 469. 1807, nom. rej.
Cephalophora [unranked] Actinella (Pers.) DC., Prodr. 5: 662. 1836.
Cephalophora subg. Actinella (Pers.) Less., Syn. Gen. Gompos. 240. 1832.
Ptilepida Raf., Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 2: 268. 1818, nom. illeg.
Type species: A. heterophylla Juss.
Graemia Hook., Exot. Fl. 3: t. 189. 1825.
Type species: G. aromatica Hook.
Hecubaea DC., Prodr. 5: 665. 1836.
Type species: H. scorzoneraefolia DC.
Leptopoda Nutt., Gen. 2: 174. 1818.
Type species: L. helenium Nutt.
Tetrodus Cass. in F.Cuvier, Dict. Sci. Nat., ed. 2. 55: 264, 272. 1828.
Type species: T. quadridentatus (Labill.) Cass.

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 886.

Vernacular names
Deutsch: Sonnenbraut
English: Sneezewort, Sneezeweed
suomi: Hohdekukat
polski: Dzielżan
русский: Гелениум
svenska: Solbrudar
Türkçe: Güneşgelini

Helenium is a genus of annuals and herbaceous perennial plants in the sunflower family Asteraceae, native to the Americas.[3][4]

They bear yellow or orange daisy-like composite flowers. A number of these species (particularly Helenium autumnale) have the common name sneezeweed, based on the former use of their dried leaves in making snuff. It was inhaled to cause sneezing that would supposedly rid the body of evil spirits. Larger species may grow up to 2 metres (6.6 ft) tall.[5]

The genus is named for Helen of Troy, daughter of Zeus and Leda.[6][7]

Helenium species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Phymatopus behrensii.

Genus level properties: most conspicuously globe-like disk-shaped flowers, rays three-lobed at tip.

Species

[2][8][9]

Helenium amarum (Raf.) H.Rock - eastern + south-central United States, California, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Cuba, Dominican Republic
Helenium apterum (S.F.Blake) Bierner - Durango
Helenium argentinum Ariza - Argentina
Helenium arizonicum S.F.Blake- Arizona
Helenium aromaticum (Hook.) L.H.Bailey - Chile, Peru
Helenium atacamense Cabrera - Chile, Peru
Helenium autumnale L. - much of United States + Canada
Helenium bigelovii A.Gray - California, Oregon, Arizona
Helenium bolanderi A.Gray - California, Oregon
Helenium brevifolium (Nutt.) Alph.Wood - southeastern United States
Helenium campestre Small - Arkansas, Louisiana
Helenium chihuahuense Bierner - Chihuahua, Durango
Helenium donianum (Hook. & Arn.) Seckt - Argentina
Helenium drummondii H.Rock - Texas, Louisiana
Helenium elegans DC. - United States (southern Great Plains), northeastern Mexico
Helenium fimbriatum (Michx.) A.Gray - southeastern United States
Helenium flexuosum Raf. - eastern + central United States + Canada
Helenium glaucum (Cav.) Stuntz - Chile
Helenium hoopesii
Helenium insulare (Phil.) Cabrera - Chile
Helenium integrifolium - Guatemala, Mexico
Helenium laciniatum A.Gray - Sonora, Sinaloa
Helenium linifolium Rydb. - southern Texas
Helenium longiaristatum Cuatrec. - Argentina
Helenium mexicanum Kunth - Mexico, Central America
Helenium microcephalum DC. - southwestern United States, northeastern Mexico
Helenium ovallense Bierner - Chile
Helenium pinnatifidum (Schwein. ex Nutt.) Rydb. - southeastern United States
Helenium polyphyllum Small - central Mississippi Valley
Helenium puberulum DC. - Baja California, California, Oregon
Helenium quadridentatum Labill. - southeastern United States, Mexico, Cuba, Belize
Helenium radiatum (Less.) Seckt - Uruguay, Argentina
Helenium scaposum Britton - Cuba
Helenium scorzonerifolium (DC.) A.Gray - Mexico, Guatemala
Helenium thurberi A.Gray - Baja California Sur, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Chihuahua, Arizona
Helenium tinctorium (Molina) J.F.Macbr. - Chile
Helenium urmenetae (Phil.) Cabrera - Chile
Helenium vallenariense (Phil.) Bierner - Chile
Helenium vernale Walter - southeastern United States
Helenium virginicum S.F.Blake - Virginia, Missouri

Cultivation
Helenium hybrid "Moerheim Beauty" [1].

Numerous cultivars have been developed for garden use - mainly from H. autumnale and H. bigelovii. They are useful for late summer and fall bloom, usually in less formal compositions. They are appropriate for native gardens in areas where they are indigenous, and they look wonderfully in bouquets. Annual species are easily grown from seed, and perennials should be divided every year in order to retain their vigor. The soil should be fertile with a generous amount of organic manner in the form of compost, manure or other decayed organic matter in addition to, perhaps, an application of a complete fertilizer in spring. Heleniums should be grown in full sun average to moist soil with good drainage. They are drought tolerant, but should be watered on planting and regularly until established.
AGM cultivars

The following have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-[10]

'Baudirektor Linne'[11]
'Blütentisch'[12]
'Butterpat'[13]
'Dunkle Pracht' [14]
'Feuersiegel'[15]
'Gartensonne'[16]
'Karneol'[17]
'Moerheim Beauty'[18]
'Ring of Fire'[19]
'Rubinzwerg'[20]
'Sahin's Early Flowerer'[21]
'Waltraut'[22]
'Wesergold'[23]

The UK National Collection of heleniums is located at Yew Tree House, Hall Lane, Hankelow. near Audlem in Cheshire.[24][25]
References

Tropicos, search for Helenium
Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist
Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 886 in Latin
Tropicos, Helenium L
Hughes-Jones 2012, p. 38
Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 426 Sneezeweed Helenium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 886. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 377. 1754.
Homer. Circa 760–710 BCE. Iliad.
Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
Turner, B. L. 2013. The comps of Mexico. A systematic account of the family Asteraceae (chapter 11: tribe Helenieae). Phytologia Memoirs 16: 1–100
"AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 43. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
"RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Baudirektor Linne'". Retrieved 30 July 2020.
"RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Blütentisch'". Retrieved 30 July 2020.
"RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Butterpat'". Retrieved 30 July 2020.
"Helenium 'Dunkle Pracht'". RHS. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
"RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Feuersiegel'". Retrieved 30 July 2020.
"RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Gartensonne'". Retrieved 30 July 2020.
"RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Karneol'". Retrieved 30 July 2020.
"RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Moerheim Beauty'". Retrieved 30 July 2020.
"RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Ring of Fire'". Retrieved 30 July 2020.
"RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Rubinzwerg'". Retrieved 30 July 2020.
"RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Sahin's Early Flowerer'". Retrieved 30 July 2020.
"RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Waltraut'". Retrieved 30 July 2020.
"RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Wesergold'". Retrieved 30 July 2020.
Welcome to Chester & Cheshire, Helenium National Collection Weekend

Special Perennials, National Collections of Helenium and Centaurea, Hankelow, Cheshire, United Kingdom

Bibliography

Everitt, J.H.; Lonard, R.L.; Little, C.R. (2007). Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-614-2
Hughes-Jones, Martin (2012). "Soaking up the sun". The Garden. Peterborough: Royal Horticultural Society. 137 (8): 36–40.

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