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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Campanulids
Ordo: Asterales

Familia: Asteraceae
Subfamilia: Asteroideae
Tribus: Heliantheae
Subtribus: AmbrosiinaeChromolepidinae – Dugesiinae – Ecliptinae – Enceliinae – Engelmanniinae – Helianthinae – Montanoinae – Rojasianthinae – Rudbeckiinae – Spilanthinae – Verbesininae – Zaluzaniinae – Zinniinae
Genera: Acanthospermum – Acmella – Acunniana – Ambrosia – Angelphytum – Apowollastonia – Aspilia – Bahiopsis – Balsamorhiza – Baltimora – Berlandiera – Blainvillea – Borrichia – Calanticaria – Calyptocarpus – Chromolepis – Chrysanthellum – Chrysogonum – Clibadium – Damnxanthodium – Davilanthus – Delilia – Dendroviguiera – Dimerostemma – Dracopis – Dugesia – Echinacea – Eclipta – Elaphandra – Eleutheranthera – Encelia – Enceliopsis – Engelmannia – Exomiocarpon – Fenixia – Flourensia – Geraea – Gonzalezia – Guizotia – Heiseria – Helianthella – Helianthus – Heliomeris – Heliopsis – Hidalgoa – Hoffmanniella – Hybridella – Hymenostephium – Idiopappus – Indocypraea – Iogeton – Iva – Jefea – Kingianthus – Lagascea – Lantanopsis – Lasianthaea – Leptocarpha – Lindheimera – Lipoblepharis – Lipochaeta – Lundellianthus – Melanthera – Monactis – Montanoa – Oblivia – Otopappus – Oyedaea – Oxycarpha – Parthenice – Parthenium – Pascalia – Pentalepis – Perymeniopsis – Perymenium – Philactis – Phoebanthus – Plagiolophus – Podachaenium – Podanthus – Quadribractea – Ratibida – Rensonia – Riencourtia – Rojasianthe – Rudbeckia – Salmea – Sanvitalia – Schizoptera – Sclerocarpus – Sigesbeckia – Silphium – Simsia – Sphagneticola – Spilanthes – Squamopappus – Steiractinia – Synedrella – Synedrellopsis – Tehuana – Tetrachyron – Tetranthus – Tilesia – Tithonia – Trichocoryne – Trigonopterum – Tuberculocarpus – Tuxtla – Verbesina – Vigethia – Viguiera – Wamalchitamia – Wedelia – Wollastonia – Wyethia – Xanthium – Zaluzania – Zexmenia – Zinnia – Zyzyxia
Name

Heliantheae Cass., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 88: 189. (1819)

Type genus: Helianthus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 904. (1753)

Synonyms

Supersubtribus Helianthiodinae C.Jeffrey, Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 89(12): 1821. (2004)

References

Cassini, A.H.G. de 1819. Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d'Histoire Naturelle et des Arts 88: 189.
International Plant Names Index. 2018. Heliantheae. Published online. Accessed: Apr. 2 2018.
Panero, J.L. 2007. Compositae: tribe Heliantheae. Pages 440-477 in Kadereit, J.W. & C. Jeffrey, C. (eds.) Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. VIII, Flowering Plants, Eudicots, Asterales. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Panero, J.L. & Funk, V.A. 2002. Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 115(4): 760–773. PDF Reference page.
Schilling, E.E. & Panero, J.L. 2002. A revised classification of subtribe Helianthinae (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). I. Basal lineages. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 140(1): 65-76. DOI: 10.1046/j.1095-8339.2002.00079.x Reference page.
Schilling, E.E. & Panero, J.L. 2011. A revised classification of subtribe Helianthinae (Asteraceae: Heliantheae) II. Derived lineages. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 167(3): 311-331. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2011.01172.x Reference page.

Vernacular names
македонски: Сончогледи
русский: Подсолнечниковые
中文: 向日葵族

The Heliantheae (sometimes called the sunflower tribe) are the third-largest tribe in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). With some 190 genera and nearly 2500 recognized species, only the tribes Senecioneae and Astereae are larger. The name is derived from the genus Helianthus, which is Greek for sun flower. Most genera and species are found in North America (particularly in Mexico) and South America. A few genera are pantropical.

Most Heliantheae are herbs or shrubs, but some grow to the size of small trees. Leaves are usually hairy and arranged in opposite pairs. The anthers are usually blackened.

The above statements about the size and distribution of the tribe apply to a broad definition of Heliantheae, which was followed throughout the 20th century. Some recent authors break the tribe up into a dozen or so smaller tribes.

Uses

Commercially important plants in the Heliantheae include sunflower and Jerusalem artichoke. Many garden flowers are also in this group, such as Coreopsis, Cosmos, Echinacea, Rudbeckia, and Zinnia. Some authors place Coreopsis and Cosmos in the Coreopsideae tribe.[1]

In addition to the benefits brought by the group, some are also problematic weeds. Species of Ambrosia (ragweed) produce large quantities of pollen. Each plant is reputed to be able to produce about a billion grains of pollen over a season, and the plant is wind-pollinated.
Subtribes and representative genera

The traditional circumscription of the Heliantheae arises from Cassini's 19th-century classification of the Asteraceae. This broad group been divided by some authors into smaller tribes: Bahieae, Chaenactideae, Coreopsideae, Helenieae, Heliantheae sensu stricto, Madieae, Millereae, Perityleae, Polymnieae, and Tageteae. Because the Eupatorieae originated from within the Heliantheae (broadly defined), to maintain monophyletic taxa it is necessary to either make Eupatorieae a subtribe within Heliantheae or to split the Heliantheae into smaller tribes.[2][3] Such classifications may define a supertribe Helianthodae including these smaller tribes, the Eupatorieae, and a few other tribes such as Inuleae.[4]

In his 1981 revision of the Heliantheae, Harold Ernest Robinson divided the group into 35 subtribes:

Ambrosiinae (includes: ragweed and Parthenium)
Baeriinae
Chaenactidinae
Clappiinae
Clibadiinae
Coreopsidinae (includes: Coreopsis, Cosmos)
Coulterellinae
Desmanthodiinae
Dimeresiinae
Ecliptinae
Engelmanniinae (includes: rosinweed)
Enhydrinae
Espeletiinae
Fitchiinae
Flaveriinae
Gaillardiinae
Galinsoginae (includes: Hidalgoa)
Guardiolinae
Helianthinae (includes: sunflowers)
Heptanthinae
Hymenopappinae
Jaumeinae
Lycapsinae
Madiinae (includes: tarweeds, Hawaiian silverswords)
Marshalliinae
Melampodiinae
Milleriinae
Montanoinae
Neurolaeninae
Pectidinae
Peritylinae
Pinillosinae
Polymniinae
Rudbeckiinae (includes: Rudbeckia)
Varillinae
Zaluzaniinae
Zinniinae (includes: Echinacea,[5] Zinnia)

See also: List of Asteraceae genera
References

Judd, Walter S.; Campbell, Christopher S.; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Stevens, Peter F.; Donoghue, Michael J. (2016). Plant Systematics, A phylogenetic approach. U.S.A.: Sinauer Associates, Inc. pp. 541–547. ISBN 978-1-60535-389-0.
"187n. Asteraceae tribe Eupatorieae". Flora of North America (Vol. 21 Page 456, 459). Retrieved 2007-10-06.
"187. Asteraceae". Flora of North America. Retrieved 2007-12-07.
Helianthodae H. Rob., Tree of Life Web Project

Urbatsch et al 2000.

Bibliography

Funk, Vicki A.; Susanna, A.; Stuessy, T. F.; Bayer, R. J., eds. (2009). Systematics, Evolution, and Biogeography of Compositae. Vienna: International Association for Plant Taxonomy. ISBN 978-3-9501754-3-1.(Available here at Internet Archive)
Panero, J L (2007). "Heliantheae". In Kadereit, Joachim W.; Jeffrey, Charles; Kubitzki, Klaus (eds.). The families and genera of vascular plants v. 8 Flowering Plants. Eudicots: Asterales. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 440–477. ISBN 978-3-540-31051-8.
Urbatsch, Lowell E.; Baldwin, Bruce G.; Donoghue, Michael J. (July 2000). "Phylogeny of the Coneflowers and Relatives (Heliantheae: Asteraceae) Based on Nuclear rDNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) Sequences and Chlorplast DNA Restriction Site Data". Systematic Botany. 25 (3): 539. doi:10.2307/2666695. JSTOR 2666695.
Bremer, Kåre. (1994). Asteraceae: Cladistics & Classification. Portland, OR: Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-275-7.
Robinson, Harold Ernest. (1981). A Revision of the Tribal and Subtribal Limits of the Heliantheae (Asteraceae). Smithsonian Contributions to Botany: 51.
Strother, John L. (1991). Taxonomy of Complaya, Elaphandra, Iogeton, Jefea, Wamalchitamia, Wedelia, Zexmenia, and Zyzyxia (Compositae - Heliantheae - Ecliptinae). Systematic Botany Monographs: 33. ISBN 0-912861-33-9

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