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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Orchidaceae
Subfamilia: Orchidoideae
Tribus: Cranichideae
Subtribus: Goodyerinae
Genus: Hetaeria
Overview of species (27)

H. affinis – H. alta – H. anomala – H. armata – H. baeuerlenii – H. callosa – H. elata – H. elegans – H. finlaysoniana – H. gardneri – H. goodyeroides – H. heterosepala – H. hylophiloides – H. lamellata – H. latipetala – H. linguella – H. mannii – H. obliqua – H. oblongifolia – H. occidentalis – H. pelota – H. rhombipetala – H. rostrata – H. tetraptera – H. vaginalis – H. whitmeei – H. youngsayei

Hetaeria Blume, Bijdr.: 409 (1825), nom. cons.

Type species: Hetaeria oblongifolia Blume, Bijdr.: 410 (1825)


Etaeria Blume, Bijdr.: 409 (1825), orth. var.
Aetheria Endl., Gen. Pl.: 214 (1837), orth. var.
Cerochilus Lindl., Gard. Chron. 1854: 87 (1854)
Rhamphidia (Lindl.) Lindl., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot. 1: 181 (1857)


Hetaeria Endl. Gen. Pl.: 133 (1836) - vide: Philydrella Caruel, Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital. 10: 91 (1878)

Native distribution areas:

East Tropical Africa
West Tropical Africa
Benin, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone.
West-Central Tropical Africa
Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Gabon, Gulf of Guinea Islands, Zaire.
Western Indian Ocean
Comoros, Madagascar.
China South-Central, China Southeast, Hainan.
Eastern Asia
Japan, Nansei-shoto, Ogasawara-shoto, Taiwan.
Indian Subcontinent
Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Sri Lanka.
Andaman Islands, Laos, Myanmar, Nicobar Islands, Thailand, Vietnam.
Borneo, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Islands, Malaya, Maluku, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatera.
Bismarck Archipelago, New Guinea, Solomon Islands.
Northwestern Pacific
Caroline Islands.
Southwestern Pacific
Fiji, New Caledonia, Niue, Samoa, Santa Cruz Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
Primary references

Blume, C.L. 1825. Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië 8: 409.
Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.W. & Rasmussen, F.N. (eds.) 2003. Genera Orchidacearum Volume 3: Orchidoideae (Part two); page 102 ff., Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850711-9


'eFloras 2009. Hetaeria in Flora of China vol. 25 Orchidaceae --> pdf Hetaeria
Global Biodiversity Information Facility. 2022. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset. Taxon: Hetaeria (Orchidaceae). Accessed: 2022 Jan 1.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Hetaeria in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Jan 1. Reference page.
Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Hetaeria in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Jan 1. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2022. Hetaeria. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2022. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Jan 1. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Hetaeria. Published online. Accessed: 1 Jan 2022. 2022. Hetaeria. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 1 Jan 2022.

Vernacular names

Hetaeria, commonly known as hairy jewel orchids,[2] is a genus of about thirty species of flowering plants in the orchid family Orchidaceae. Plants in this genus are terrestrial herbs with a succulent rhizome and a loose rosette of leaves. Small, pale, hairy non-resupinate flowers are borne on a thin, hairy flowering stem. They are found in tropical Africa and Asia to New Guinea, Australia and some Pacific Islands.


Orchids in the genus Hetaeria are terrestrial, perennial, deciduous, sympodial herbs with a creeping, succulent, above-ground rhizome anchored to the ground by wiry roots. The leaves are dark green, usually narrow, thin-textured and arranged in a loose rosette with a short petiole-like base, the lower leaves usually withered by flowering time. The flowers are non-resupinate and usually small, dull-coloured and hairy with the dorsal sepal and petals joined to form a hood over the column. The labellum is glabrous and has a deep pouch near its base.[2][3][4]
Taxonomy and naming

The genus Hetaeria was first formally described in 1825 by Carl Ludwig Blume and the description was published in Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië.[1][5] (Blume gave the name Etaeria, but Hetaeria is a conserved name.) The name Hetaeria is an Ancient Greek word meaning "comrade" or "companion".[6]
Species list

Species recognized as of August 2018:[1]

Hetaeria affinis (Griff.) Seidenf. & Ormerod - Himalayas, Thailand, Vietnam, Yunnan, Bangladesh
Hetaeria alta Ridl. - Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Borneo
Hetaeria anomala Lindl. - from Assam east to Taiwan and south to Sumatra and the Philippines
Hetaeria armata Ormerod & H.A.Pedersen - Thailand
Hetaeria baeuerlenii Schltr. - New Guinea
Hetaeria callosa (J.J.Sm.) Ormerod - New Guinea, Bismarcks
Hetaeria elata Hook.f. - Malaysia, Borneo, Philippines
Hetaeria elegans Ridl. - Malaysia
Hetaeria finlaysoniana Seidenf. - Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Guangxi, Hainan
Hetaeria gardneri (Thwaites) Benth. ex Hook.f. - Sri Lanka
Hetaeria gautierensis J.J.Sm. - New Guinea
Hetaeria goodyeroides Schltr. - New Guinea
Hetaeria heterosepala (Rchb.f.) Summerh. - Africa from Liberia to Tanzania; also Madagascar
Hetaeria hylophiloides (Carr) Ormerod & J.J.Wood - Sabah
Hetaeria lamellata Blume - Java
Hetaeria latipetala Schltr. - New Guinea
Hetaeria linguella (Carr) J.J.Wood & Ormerod - Sarawak
Hetaeria mannii (Rchb.f.) Benth. ex Durand & Schinz - Cameroon, Gabon, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, islands in the Gulf of Guinea
Hetaeria obliqua Blume - Hainan, Nicobar Islands, Thailand, Borneo, Malaysia, Sumatra
Hetaeria oblongifolia Blume - widespread from India east to Japan and Micronesia, south to Australia
Hetaeria occidentalis Summerh. - Africa from Sierra Leone to Congo-Kinshasa
Hetaeria pelota N.Pearce & P.J.Cribb - Bhutan
Hetaeria rhombipetala Ormerod & J.J.Wood - Sabah
Hetaeria rostrata J.J.Sm. - Sumatra
Hetaeria tetraptera (Rchb.f.) Summerh. - Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo-Kinshasa
Hetaeria vaginalis Rchb.f. - Comoros
Hetaeria whitmeei Rchb.f. - Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoa, Tonga
Hetaeria youngsayei Ormerod - Thailand, Vietnam, Hainan


"Hetaeria". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Jones, David L. (2006). A complete guide to native orchids of Australia including the island territories. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: New Holland. p. 348. ISBN 1877069124.
"Hetaeria". Flora of China. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
D.L.Jones; T.Hopley; S.M.Duffy (2010). "Hetaeria". Australian Tropical Rainforest Orchids. Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research (CANBR), Australian Government. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
Blume, Carl Ludwig (1825). Bijdragen tot de flora van Nederlandsch Indië (Part 8). Batavia. p. 409. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
Brown, Roland Wilbur (1956). The Composition of Scientific Words. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 223.

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