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Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Liliopsida
Subclassis: Liliidae
Ordo: Asparagales
Familia: Hyacinthaceae
Subfamilia: Hyacinthoideae
Tribus: Hyacintheae
Genus: Hyacinthus
Species: H. litwinowii - H. orientalis - H. transcaspicus

Vernacular names
Česky: Hyacint
Magyar: Jácint
Русский: Гиацинт
Türkçe: Sümbül
中文: 风信子属

Hyacinthus is a genus of bulbous flowering plants, formerly placed in the lily family Liliaceae but now regarded as the type genus of the separate family Hyacinthaceae.[1] They are commonly called Hyacinths, and are native to the eastern Mediterranean region, west Iran, and Turkmenistan.

Three species are within the genus Hyacinthus:

* Hyacinthus litwinowii
* Hyacinthus orientalis - Common, Dutch or Garden Hyacinth
* Hyacinthus transcaspicus

Some authorities place H. litwonowii and H. transcaspicus in the related genus Hyacinthella, which would make Hyacinthus a monotypic genus.

The related grape hyacinths (Muscari), sometimes called baby's-breath, are very low, mostly blue-flowered plants similar in appearance to hyacinths and are also commonly cultivated.

The Dutch, or Common Hyacinth of house and garden culture (H. orientalis, native to southwest Asia) was so popular in the 18th century that over 2,000 cultivars were cultivated in the Netherlands, its chief commercial producer. This hyacinth has a single dense spike of fragrant flowers in shades of red, blue, white, orange, pink, violet, or yellow. A form of the common hyacinth is the less hardy and smaller blue- or white-petalled Roman hyacinth of florists. These flowers should have indirect sunlight and are to be moderately watered.

Several types of brodiea, deathcamas, squill, and other plants that were formerly classified in the lily family and have flower clusters borne along the stalk also have common names with hyacinth in them.

Hyacinths are sometimes associated with rebirth. The Hyacinth flower is used in the Haftseen table setting for the Persian New Year celebration Norouz held during the Spring Equinox.

Hyacinth bulbs contain oxalic acid[2], which can cause mild irritation to people with sensitive skin. Protective gloves may be worn to avoid irritation.

Myth associated with Hyacinth

Hyacinth was a beautiful youth loved by both the god Apollo and the West Wind, Zephyr. Apollo and Hyacinth took turns at throwing the discus. Hyacinth ran to catch it to impress Apollo, but he was struck by the discus as it fell to the ground, and died.[3] A twist in the tale makes the wind god Zephyrus responsible for the death of Hyacinth.[4] The youth's beauty caused a feud between Zephyrus and Apollo. Jealous that Hyacinth preferred the radiant archery god Apollo, Zephyrus blew Apollo's discus off course, so as to injure and kill Hyacinth. Apollo did not allow Hades to claim Hyacinth. Instead, Apollo made a flower, the hyacinth, from Hyacinth's spilled blood.

References

1. ^ http://www.tolweb.org/Hyacinthaceae
2. ^ http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/hil/hil-8507.html NCSU Horticulture Information Leaflets
3. ^ pseudo-Apollodorus, i. 3.3.
4. ^ Lucian,Dialogues of the Gods; Servius, commentary on Virgil Eclogue iii. 63; Philostratus, Imagines i.24; Ovid Metamorphoses x. 184.

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