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Hyssopus officinalis

Hyssopus officinalis , Photo: Michael Lahanas

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Lamiales

Familia: Lamiaceae
Subfamilia: Nepetoideae
Tribus: Mentheae
Subtribus: Nepetinae
Genus: Hyssopus
Species: Hyssopus officinalis
Subspecies: H. o. subsp. aristatus – H. o. subsp. canescens – H. o. subsp. montanus – H. o. subsp. officinalis
Name

Hyssopus officinalis L. (1753)
Synonyms

Homotypic
Hyssopus vulgaris Bubani, Fl. Pyren. (Bubani) 1: 408. 1897 [1], nom. illeg.
Thymus hyssopus E.H.L.Krause, Deutschl. Fl. ed. 2, 11: 172 1903.

References

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 569.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Hyssopus officinalis in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed: 07-Oct-06.

Vernacular names
Afrikaans: Hisop
العربية: زوفا طبية
azərbaycanca: Dərman çödükotu
беларуская: Ісоп лекавы
български: Лечебен исоп
català: Hisop
čeština: Yzop lékařský
Cymraeg: Isop
dansk: Ægte isop
Deutsch: Ysop
dolnoserbski: Yzop
Ελληνικά: Ύσσωπος ο φαρμακευτικός
English: Hyssop
Esperanto: Oficina hisopo
español: Hisopo
eesti: Harilik iisop
euskara: Isipu-belar
فارسی: زوفا
suomi: Iisoppi
français: Hysope
Gaeilge: Íosóip
hrvatski: Ljekoviti sipan
hornjoserbsce: Jězop
magyar: Kerti izsóp
Bahasa Indonesia: Hisop
italiano: Issopo officinale
日本語: ヒソップ
Nederlands: Hyssop
norsk nynorsk: Isop
polski: Hyzop lekarski
português: Hissopo
русский: Иссоп лекарственный
slovenčina: Yzop lekársky
српски / srpski: Милодух - Miloduh
svenska: Isop
Türkçe: Zufa otu
українська: Гісоп лікарський
اردو: زوفا
中文: 神香草

Hyssopus officinalis or hyssop is a shrub in the Lamiaceae or mint family native to Southern Europe, the Middle East, and the region surrounding the Caspian Sea. Due to its purported properties as an antiseptic, cough reliever, and expectorant, it has been used in traditional herbal medicine.

Description

Hyssop is a brightly coloured shrub or subshrub that ranges from 30 to 60 cm (12 to 24 in) in height. The stem is woody at the base, from which grow a number of upright branches. Its leaves are lanceolate, dark green, and from 2 to 2.5 cm (3⁄4 to 1 in) long.[3]

During the summer, hyssop produces pink, blue, or, more rarely, white fragrant flowers. These give rise to small oblong tetra-achenes.
History
Main article: Ezov

A plant called hyssop has been in use since classical antiquity. Its name is a direct adaptation from the Greek ὕσσωπος (hyssopos). The Hebrew word אזוב (ezov, esov, or esob) and the Greek word ὕσσωπος probably share a common (but unknown) origin.[4] The name hyssop appears as a translation of ezov in some translations of the Bible, notably in Psalms 51:7: "Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean", but researchers have suggested that the Biblical accounts refer not to the plant currently known as hyssop but rather to one of a number of different herbs, including Origanum syriacum (Syrian oregano, commonly referred to as "bible hyssop").[5][6][7][8] 1 Kings 4:33 mentions that 'ezov' was a small plant and some scholars believe it was a wall plant.[9] It was burned with the Red Heifer (Numbers 19:6) and used for purification of lepers (Leviticus 14:4–6, Leviticus 14:49–51; Numbers 19:18), and at Passover it was used to sprinkle the blood of the sacrificial lamb on the doorposts (Exodus 12:22).[10] A sponge attached to a hyssop branch was used to give Jesus on the cross a drink of vinegar.[11]

Suggestions abound for the modern day correlation of biblical hyssop ranging from a wall plant like moss or fern, to widely used culinary herbs like thyme, rosemary or marjoram. Another suggestion is the caper plant which is known to grow in the rocky soils of the region and along walls.[9]

Hyssop was also used for purgation (religious purification) in Egypt, where, according to Chaeremon the Stoic, the priests used to eat it with bread in order to purify this type of food and make it suitable for their austere diet.[12]
Cultivation

Hyssop is resistant to drought, and tolerant of chalky, sandy soils. It thrives in full sun and warm climates.

Cultivars include 'Blue Flower'.
Harvest

Under optimal weather conditions, herb hyssop is harvested twice yearly, once at the end of spring and once more at the beginning of autumn. The plants are preferably harvested when flowering in order to collect the flowering tips.

Once the stalks are cut, they are collected and dried either stacked on pallets to allow for draining or hung to dry. The actual drying process takes place in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area, where the materials are mixed several times to ensure even drying. Drying herbs are kept from exposure to the sun to prevent discoloration and oxidation. The drying process takes approximately six days in its entirety. Once dried, the leaves are removed and both components, leaves and flowers, are chopped finely. The final dried product weighs a third of the initial fresh weight and can be stored for up to 18 months.
Essential oil

The essential oil includes the chemicals thujone and phenol, which give it antiseptic properties.[13] Its high concentrations of thujone and chemicals that stimulate the central nervous system, including pinocamphone and cineole, can provoke epileptic reactions.[14] The oil of hyssop can cause seizures and even low doses (2–3 drops) can cause convulsions in children.[15]
Uses
Culinary

The fresh herb is commonly used in cooking. Za'atar is a famous Middle Eastern herbal mixture, some versions of which include dried Hyssop leaves.

Essence of hyssop can be obtained by steaming, and is used in cooking to a lesser extent.

The plant is commonly used by beekeepers to produce nectar from which western honey bees make a rich and aromatic honey.

Herb hyssop leaves are used as an aromatic condiment. The leaves have a lightly bitter taste due to its tannins, and an intense minty aroma. Due to its intensity, it is used moderately in cooking. The herb is also used to flavor liqueur, and is part of the official formulation of Chartreuse. It is also a key ingredient in many formulations of absinthe, where it is the main source of the green colour.
Herbal medicine

In herbal medicine hyssop is believed to have soothing, expectorant, and cough suppressant properties.[16] Hyssop has been used for centuries in traditional medicine in order to increase circulation and to treat multiple conditions such as coughing and sore throat.[17] Hyssop can stimulate the gastrointestinal system.[18]
Gallery

Portrait of Christoph von Suchten holding a branch of hyssop in his hand considered in ancient times to be the symbol of faith, physical purity and moral regeneration, 1507, National Museum in Gdańsk[19]

Hyssopus officinalis

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) essential oil

References

Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé, Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany
"The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 13 January 2015.
Pérez Maté, P. (2002). Especies aromáticas y medicinales (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: INTA. [1].
Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition, 1989, s.v. hyssop
Based on the Judeo-Arabic translation of the word in the works of Rabbi Saadia Gaon (in his Tafsir, a translation of the Pentateuch, Exo. 12:22), David ben Abraham al-Fasi (in his Hebrew-Arabic Dictionary of the Bible, known as `Kitāb Jāmiʿ al-Alfāẓ`, vol. 1, s.v. אזוב), Rabbi Jonah ibn Janah (Sefer HaShorashim - Book of the Roots, s.v. אזב - aleph, zayn, bet), Maimonides (in his Mishnah Commentary, Nega'im 14:6) and Nathan ben Abraham I in Mishnah Uktzin 2:2. The problems with identification arise from Jewish oral tradition where it expressly prohibits Greek hyssop, and where the biblical plant is said to have been identical to the Arabic word, zaatar (Origanum syriacum), and which word is not to be associated with other ezobs that often bear an additional epithet, such as zaatar farsi = Persian-hyssop (Thymbra capitata) and zaatar rumi = Roman-hyssop (Satureja thymbra). See: The Mishnah (ed. Herbert Danby), Oxford University Press: Oxford 1977, s.v. Negai'im 14:6 (p. 696); Parah 11:7 [10:7] (p. 711).
Fleisher, A.; Fleisher, Z. (1988). "Identification of biblical hyssop and origin of the traditional use of oregano-group herbs in the Mediterranean region". Economic Botany. 42 (2): 232–241. doi:10.1007/bf02858924. S2CID 45220405.
R.K. Harrison (1954). "The Biblical Problem of Hyssop" (PDF). The Evangelical Quarterly. 26 (4): 218–224. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-31. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
"Origanum syriacum Bible Hyssop PFAF Plant Database". pfaf.org.
Balfour, John Hutton (1866). The plants of the Bible, trees and shrubs. p. 34. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
"HYSSOP - JewishEncyclopedia.com". www.jewishencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2016-05-28.
John 19:29
From Chaeremon's History of Egypt, as quoted by Porphyry, De Abstinentia IV.6.9.
van Wyk, Ben-Erik; Wink, Michael (2004). Medicinal Plants of the World (1 ed.). Timber Press, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-88192-602-6., p 177.
Pierre R. Burkhard; Karim Burkhardt; Charles-Antoine Haenggeli; Theodor Landis (1999). "Plant-induced seizures: reappearance of an old problem". J Neurol. 246 (8): 667–670. doi:10.1007/s004150050429. PMID 10460442. S2CID 20996610.
Hyssop, WebMD
Grieve, M. "Hyssop: A Modern Herbal". Botanical.com.
"Hyssop". livertox.nih.gov.
Crellin, John; Philpott, Jane (1997). A Reference Guide to Medicinal Plants: Herbal Medicine Past and Present. Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-1019-8.
Marcin Latka. "Portrait of Christoph von Suchten". artinpl. Retrieved 28 July 2019.

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