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Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Iridaceae
Subfamiliae: Aristeoideae – Crocoideae – Geosiridoideae – IridoideaeIsophysidoideaeNivenioideae – Patersonioideae
Genera: Afrocrocus – AineaAlophiaAristea – Babiana – Bobartia – Calydorea – Cardenanthus – Chasmanthe – Cipura – Cobana – Crocosmia – Crocus – Cyanixia – Cypella – Devia – Dierama – Dietes – Diplarrena – Duthiastrum – Eleutherine – Ennealophus – Ferraria – Fosteria – Freesia – Geissorhiza – Gelasine – Geosiris – Gladiolus – HerbertiaHermodactylus – Hesperantha – Hesperoxiphion – Iris – Isophysis – Ixia – Kelissa – Klattia – Lapeirousia – Larentia – LethiaLibertiaMastigostyla – Melasphaerula – Micranthus – Moraea – Nemastylis – Neomarica – Nivenia – Olsynium – Orthrosanthus – PatersoniaPhalocallis – Pillansia – Pseudotrimezia – Radinosiphon – Romulea – Salpingostylis – Savannosiphon – SessilantheraSisyrinchiumSolenomelusSparaxis – Syringodea – Tapeinia – Thereianthus – Tigridia – Trimezia – Tritonia – Tritoniopsis – Watsonia – Witsenia – Xenoscapa – Zygotritonia

Name

Iridaceae Juss., Gen. Pl.: 57 (1789), nom. cons.

Type genus: Iris L., Sp. Pl. 1: 38 (1753).

Synonyms

Heterotypic
Crocaceae Vest, Anleit. Stud. Bot.: 266, 283 (1818).
Type genus: Crocus L.
Galaxiaceae Raf., New Fl. N. Amer. 1: 72 (1836).
Type genus: Galaxia Thunb.
Gladiolaceae Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 34 (1838).
Type genus: Gladiolus L.
Isophysidaceae F.A.Barkley, Revista Fac. Nac. Agron. Medellín Univ. Antioquia 8: 152 (1948).
Type genus: Isophysis T.Moore ex Seem.
Ixiaceae Horan., Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 51 (1834).
Type genus: Ixia L. nom. cons.

Note: Subfamilial circumscription follows Goldblatt (2008) and genera Govaerts et al. (2015).
References
Primary references

Jussieu, A.L. de 1789. Genera plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam. 498 pp. Paris: Herissant et Theophile Barrois. BHL Reference page.

Additional references

Goldblatt, P. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of Iridaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 77(4): 607–627. DOI: 10.2307/2399667 Hybrid open access journal. BHL Reference page.
Goldblatt, P., Manning, J.C. & Rudall, P.J. 1998. Iridaceae. Flowering Plants. Monocotyledons: Lilianae (excluding Orchidaceae) 295-333.
Goldblatt, P., Rodríguez, A., , Davies, T.J., Manning, J.C., Van der Bank, M. & Savolainen, V. 2008. Iridaceae 'Out of Australasia'? Phylogeny, biogeography, and divergence time based on plastid DNA sequences. Systematic Botany 33(3): 495–508. DOI: 10.1600/036364408785679806 Paywall ResearchGate Reference page.
Goldblatt, P. & Manning, J.C. 2008. The Iris family: the natural history and classification, 290 pp. Timber Press, Portland, London. ISBN 978-0-88192-897-6 Reference page.
Reeves, G., Chase, M.W., Goldblatt, P., Rudall, P.J., Fay, M.F., Cox, A.V., Lejeune, B. & Souza-Chies, T.T. de 2001. Molecular systematics of Iridaceae: Evidence from four plastid DNA regions. American Journal of Botany 88(11): 2074–2087. DOI: 10.2307/3558433 Open access. JSTOR Hybrid open access journal Reference page.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2015. Iridaceae in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2015 Nov. 26. Reference page.
International Plant Names Index. 2013. Iridaceae. Published online. Accessed: 16 Sept. 2013.
Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2013. Iridaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 16 Sept. 2013.

Vernacular names
العربية: سوسنية
asturianu: Iridacees
azərbaycanca: Süsənkimilər
беларуская: Касачовыя
български: Перуникови
català: Iridàcies
čeština: Kosatcovité
dansk: Iris-familien
Deutsch: Schwertliliengewächse
Ελληνικά: Ιριδοειδή
English: Iris family
Esperanto: Iridacoj
español: Iridáceas
eesti: Võhumõõgalised
euskara: Iridazeo
فارسی: زنبقیان
suomi: Kurjenmiekkakasvit
Nordfriisk: Irisplaanten
français: Iridacées
galego: Iridáceas
עברית: אירוסיים
hrvatski: Perunikovke
hornjoserbsce: Škleńčicowe rostliny
magyar: Nősziromfélék
italiano: Iridacee
日本語: アヤメ科
қазақша: Құртқашаштар тұқымдасы
한국어: 붓꽃과
kurdî: Famîleya sosinan
кыргызча: Чекилдектер тукуму
lietuvių: Vilkdalginiai
latviešu: Īrisu dzimta, Skalbju dzimta
македонски: Перуники
മലയാളം: ഇറിഡേസീ
Nederlands: Lissenfamilie
norsk nynorsk: Sverdliljefamilien
norsk: Sverdliljefamilien
polski: Kosaćcowate
پنجابی: ست رنگی
Runa Simi: Hamachi yura rikch'aq ayllu
русский: Ирисовые
slovenčina: Kosatcovité
svenska: Irisväxter
తెలుగు: ఇరిడేసి
ไทย: วงศ์ว่านแม่ยับ
Türkçe: Süsengiller
українська: Півникові
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Gulsapsardoshlar
Tiếng Việt: Họ Diên vĩ
中文(简体): 鸢尾科
中文(繁體): 鳶尾科

Iridaceae is a family of plants in order Asparagales, taking its name from the irises, meaning rainbow, referring to its many colours. There are 66 accepted genera with a total of c. 2244 species worldwide (Christenhusz & Byng 2016[2]). It includes a number of other well known cultivated plants, such as freesias, gladioli and crocuses.

Members of this family are perennial plants, with a bulb, corm or rhizome. The plants grow erect, and have leaves that are generally grass-like, with a sharp central fold. Some examples of members of this family are the blue flag and yellow flag.

Name and history

The family name is based on the genus Iris, the largest and best known genus in Europe. This genus dates from 1753, when it was coined by Swedish botanist, Carl Linnaeus. Its name derives from the Greek goddess, Iris, who carried messages from Olympus to earth along a rainbow, whose colours were seen by Linnaeus in the multi-hued petals of many of the species.

The family is currently divided into four subfamilies but the results from DNA analysis suggest that several more should be recognised:

Subfamily Crocoideae is one of the major subfamilies in the family Iridaceae. It contains many genera, including Afrocrocus, Babiana, Chasmanthe, Crocosmia, Crocus, Cyanixia, Devia, Dierama, Duthieastrum, Freesia, Geissorhiza, Gladiolus, Hesperantha, Ixia, Lapeirousia, Melasphaerula, Micranthus, Pillansia, Romulea, Sparaxis, Savannosiphon, Syringodea, Thereianthus, Tritonia, Tritoniopsis, Xenoscapa and Watsonia. They are mainly from Africa, but includes members from Europe and Asia. The rootstock is usually a corm, they have blooms which sometimes have scent are collected in inflorescence and contain six tepals. The nectar is produced mostly in the base of the bloom from the glands of the ovary, which is where the flower forms a tube-like end. In some species there is no such end and the plant only provides pollen to pollinating insects. Members of this subfamily have the sword-shaped leaves typical of Iridaceae.

Subfamily Isophysidoideae contains the single genus Isophysis, from Tasmania. It is the only member of the family with a superior ovary and has a star-like yellow to brownish flower.

Subfamily Nivenioideae contains six genera from South Africa, Australia and Madagascar, including the only true shrubs in the family (Klattia, Nivenia and Witsenia) as well as the only myco-heterotroph (Geosiris). Aristea is also a member of this subfamily. It is distinguished by having flowers in small, paired clusters among large bracts, slender styles that are divided into three slender branches and nectar (when present) produced from glands in the ovary walls. The flowers are always radially symmetrical, with separate tepals (petals) and the rootstock is a rhizome.

Subfamily Iridoideae is distributed throughout the range of the family and contains the large genera Iris and Moraea. It is the only subfamily that is represented in North and South America. The species have flowers in solitary clusters among large bracts, styles that are often petal-like or crested and nectar (when present) is produced from glands on the tepals. Most species have separate petals and the rootstock is usually a rhizome or rarely a bulb. The flowers are almost always radially symmetrical. Bobartia, Dietes and Ferraria belong to this subfamily.
Ecology

Members of Iridaceae occur in a great variety of habitats. About the only place they do not grow is in the sea itself, although Gladiolus gueinzii occurs on the seashore just above the high tide mark within reach of the spray. Most species are adapted to seasonal climates that have a pronounced dry or cold period unfavourable for plant growth and during which the plants dormant. As a result, most species are deciduous. Evergreen species are restricted to subtropical forests or savannah, temperate grasslands and perennially moist fynbos. A few species grow in marshes or along streams and some even grow only in the spray of seasonal waterfalls.

The above ground parts (leaves and stems) of deciduous species die down when the bulb or corm enters dormancy. The plants thus survive periods that are unfavourable for growth by retreating underground. This is particularly useful in grasslands and fynbos, which are adapted to regular burning in the dry season. At this time the plants are dormant and their bulbs or corms are able to survive the heat of the fires underground. Veld fires clear the soil surface of competing vegetation, as well as fertilise it with ash. With the arrival of the first rains, the dormant corms are ready to burst into growth, sending up flowers and stems before they can be shaded out by other vegetation. Many grassland and fynbos irids flower best after fires and some fynbos species will only flower in the season after a fire.

The family has a very diverse pollination ecology. Most species are pollinated by various species of solitary bees but many are adapted to pollination by sunbirds. These species typically have red to orange, trumpet-like flowers that secrete large amounts of nectar. Other species are adapted to pollination by butterflies and moths, carrion flies and long-proboscid flies, and even monkey-beetles.
List of genera

Up to 80 genera have been recognised in the family, with a total of around 1500 species, worldwide. The Afrotropical realm, and in particular South Africa, have the greatest diversity of genera. The spice saffron comes from the stigma of the saffron crocus, Crocus sativus.

Afrocrocus
Ainea
Alophia
Anapalina
Aristea
Babiana, Baboon flower
Bobartia
Calydorea, Violet-lily
Chasmanthe, African cornflag
Cipura
Cobana
Crocosmia, Montbretia
Crocus
Cyanixia
Cypella
Devia
Dierama, Fairy-wand
Dietes, Fortnight lily, African iris
Diplarrena
Duthiastrum
Eleutherine
Ennealophus
Ferraria
Freesia (syn. Anomatheca)
Geissorhiza
Gelasine
Geosiris
Gladiolus
Herbertia
Hesperantha
Hesperoxiphion
Iris
Isophysis
Ixia, African cornlily
Klattia
Lapeirousia
Larentia
Lethia
Libertia
Mastigostyla
Melasphaerula
Micranthus
Moraea
Nemastylis
Neomarica
Nivenia
Olsynium, Grasswidow
Orthrosanthus
Patersonia
Pillansia
Pseudotrimezia
Radinosiphon
Romulea
Savannosiphon
Sisyrinchium, Blue-eyed grass, Yellow-eyed grass
Solenomelus
Sparaxis, Wandflower, Harlequin flower
Syringodea
Thereianthus
Tigridia Tiger flower, Mexican shell flower
Trimezia
Tritonia
Tritoniopsis
Watsonia, Bugle-lily
Witsenia
Xenoscapa
Zygotritonia

References

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06.

Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.

Bibliography

Goldblatt, P; Manning, J C; Rudall, P (1998). "Iridaceae". In Kubitzki, Klaus; Huber, Herbert (eds.). Flowering plants. Monocotyledons: Lilianae (except Orchidaceae). The families and genera of vascular plants. Vol. 3. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp. 295–333. ISBN 3-540-64060-6.
Rudall, Paula (1995). Anatomy of the Monocotyledons: VIII Iridaceae. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0198545040.
Goldblatt, Peter (1990). "Phylogeny and classification of Iridaceae". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 77 (4): 607–627. doi:10.2307/2399667. JSTOR 2399667.
Goldblatt, P. (2000). "Phylogeny and Classificationof the Iridaceae and the Relationships of Iris". Annali di Botanica. 58: 13–28. doi:10.4462/annbotrm-9059 (inactive 28 February 2022). ISSN 2239-3129.
Goldblatt, Peter; Rodriguez, Aaron; Powell, M. P.; Davies, Jonathan T.; Manning, John C.; van der Bank, M.; Savolainen, Vincent (1 July 2008). "Iridaceae 'Out of Australasia'? Phylogeny, Biogeography, and Divergence Time Based on Plastid DNA Sequences". Systematic Botany. 33 (3): 495–508. doi:10.1600/036364408785679806. S2CID 1803832.

Subdivision

Goldblatt, Peter; Davies, Jonathan; Manning, John; van der Bank, Michelle; Savolainen, Vincent (2006). "Phylogeny of Iridaceae Subfamily Crocoideae Based on a Combined Multigene Plastid DNA Analysis". Aliso. 22 (1): 399–411. doi:10.5642/aliso.20062201.32.
Goldblatt, P.; Manning, J.C.; Demissew, Sebsebe; Malakasi, P.; Forest, F. (September 2016). "Relationships of the sub-Saharan African genus Zygotritonia Mildbr. (Iridaceae: Crocoideae) inferred from molecular analysis". South African Journal of Botany. 106: 5–7. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2016.05.013.
Goldblatt, P.; Manning, J. C. (9 December 2012). "Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae: Crocoideae): 4. Revision of sect. Dichone". Bothalia. 42 (2): 87–110. doi:10.4102/abc.v42i2.11.

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