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Iris virginica

Iris virginica , Photo: Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species. Northeast National Technical Center, Chester.

Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Ordo: Asparagales

Familia: Iridaceae
Subfamilia: Iridoideae
Tribus: Irideae
Genus: Iris
Subgenus: I. subg. Limniris
Sectio: I. sect. Limniris
Series: Iris ser. Laevigatae
Species: Iris virginica
Name

Iris virginica L., Sp. Pl. 1: 39 (1753).
Synonyms

Homotypic
Iris versicolor f. virginica (L.) Voss, Vilm. Blumengaertn., ed. 3. 1: 978. 1895.
Iris versicolor var. virginica (L.) Baker, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 16: 141 (1877).
Xiphion virginicum (L.) Alef., Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 21: 297 (1863).

Heterotypic
Iris albilinea Alexander

Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 349 (1931).

Iris amnicola Alexander

Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 348 (1931).

Iris atroenantha Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 338 (1931).
Iris auralata Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 349 (1931).
Iris bifurcata Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 345 (1931).
Iris callirhodea (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 347 (1931).
Iris caroliniana S.Watson in A.Gray, Manual, ed. 6. 514 (1890).
Iris cerasioides (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 343 (1931).
Iris chlorolopha Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 338 (1931).
Iris chrysolopha Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 350 (1931).
Iris citriviola Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 345 (1931).
Iris crocinubia (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 341 (1931).
Iris cyanantha (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 344 (1931).
Iris cyanochrysea Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 348 (1931).
Iris dewinkeleri Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 347 (1931).
Iris fulvaurea Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 340 (1931).
Iris fumiflora (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 340 (1931).
Iris fumifulva Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 340 (1931).
Iris fuscaurea Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 340 (1931).
Iris fuscirosea Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 342 (1931).
Iris fuscisanguinea (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 349 (1931).
Iris fuscivenosa Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 341 (1931).
Iris gentilliana (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 345 (1931).
Iris georgiana Britton in Britton & A.Br., Ill. Fl. N. U.S., ed. 2. 1: 537 (1913), nom. illegit,
Iris ianthina (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 339 (1931).
Iris iochroma Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 348 (1931).
Iris iocyanea Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 344 (1931).
Iris iodantha (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327 345 (1931).
Iris ioleuca (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327 344 (1931).
Iris iophaea Alexander in Small, Bot. Interpr. Iridac. Gulf States 338 (1931).
Iris lancipetala (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 346 (1931).
Iris ludoviciana Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 339 (1931).
Iris marplei (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 346 (1931).
Iris moricolor Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 340 (1931).
Iris oenantha Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 344 (1931).
Iris oolopha Alexander Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 350 (1931).
Iris pallidirosea Alexander Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 347 (1931).
Iris parvirosea Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 346 (1931).
Iris phoenicis Small ex Alexander, in Small, Bot. Interpr. Iridac. Gulf States 349 (1931).
Iris pseudocristata Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 346 (1931).
Iris purpurissata Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 340 (1931).
Iris pyrrholopha Alexander Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 339 (1931).
Iris regalis Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 343 (1931).
Iris regifulva (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 338 (1931).
Iris rhodantha (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 346 (1931).
Iris rhodochrysea Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 347 (1931).
Iris rosiflora Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 338 (1931).
Iris rosilutea (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 342 (1931).
Iris rosipurpurea (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 343 (1931).
Iris rubea (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 338 (1931).
Iris rubicunda Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 342 (1931).
Iris rubrolilacina (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 345 (1931).
Iris salmonicolor Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 339 (1931).
Iris schizolopha (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 351 (1931).
Iris subfulva Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 337 (1931).
Iris thomasii Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 348 (1931).
Iris tyriana Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 342 (1931).
Iris violilutea (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 350 (1931).
Iris violipurpurea Small, Addisonia 14: 1, pl. 449 (1929).
Iris violivenosa Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 339 (1931).
Iris viridis (Alexander) Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 345 (1931).
Iris viridivinea Small ex Alexander in Small & Alexander, Contr. New York Bot. Gard. 327: 341 (1931).

Distribution
Native distribution areas:

Continental: Northern America
Alabama, Arkansas, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Québec, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition
References
Primary references

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Tomus I: 39. Reference page.

Additional references

Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2002). Flora of North America North of Mexico 26: 1-723. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

Links

Govaerts, R. et al. 2022. Iris virginica in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Feb 20. Reference page.
Hassler, M. 2022. Iris virginica. World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World In: Roskovh, Y., Abucay, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., Bailly, N., Kirk, P., Bourgoin, T., DeWalt, R.E., Decock, W., De Wever, A., Nieukerken, E. van, Zarucchi, J. & Penev, L., eds. 2022. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published online. Accessed: 2022 Feb 20. Reference page.
Tropicos.org 2022. Iris virginica. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 20 Feb 2022.
International Plant Names Index. 2022. Iris virginica. Published online. Accessed: Feb 20 2022.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Iris virginica in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.
Wunderlin, R.P. & Hansen, B.F. 2008. Iris virginica in Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Institute for Systematic Botany, University of South Florida, Tampa. Published online. Accessed: 2015 May 15.
eFloras 2008. Iris virginica in Flora of North America . Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Vernacular names
English: Virginia iris
فارسی: زنبق ویرجینیا
മലയാളം: ഐറിസ് വിർജിനിക്ക
Nederlands: Virginia Iris
русский: Ирис виргинский
中文: 維吉尼亞鳶尾

Iris virginica, with the common name Virginia iris, is a perennial species of flowering plant, native to eastern North America.

It is common along the coastal plain from Florida to Georgia in the Southeastern United States.[2]

It was identified as a separate species by Edgar Anderson, and is one of the three Iris species in Anderson's Iris flower data set, used by Ronald Fisher in his 1936 paper "The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems" as an example of linear discriminant analysis.[3][4]

Description

Iris virginica is a perennial plant. The plant has 2 to 4 erect or arching, bright green, lance-shaped leaves that are flattened into one plane at the base. Leaves are 1–3 cm (1⁄2–1+1⁄4 in) wide and are sometimes longer than the flower stalk. The fleshy roots (1–2 cm or 1⁄2–3⁄4 in in diameter) are rhizomes that spread underground. Pale brown, variably shaped seeds are born in three-part fruit capsules (3–6 cm or 1+1⁄4–2+1⁄4 in long, 1–2 cm or 1⁄2–3⁄4 in wide).[5]

The slightly fragrant flowers (4 cm or 1+1⁄2 in long, 7 cm or 2+3⁄4 in across) consist of 3 horizontal sepals, or "falls", and 3 erect petals. The petals and sepals can vary in color from dark-violet to pinkish-white. The sepals have a splash of yellow to yellow-orange at the crest. Each plant has 2 to 6 flowers that bloom from April to May upon a single, erect, 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall stalk. The stalk is sometimes branched and has a slight zigzag appearance.[5]
Uses

The Cherokee use this medicinal plant for traditional medicinal uses. The root is pounded into a paste that is used as a salve for the skin. An infusion made from the root is used to treat ailments of the liver, and a decoction of the root is used to treat "yellowish urine".[6][7]

It may be one of the Iris species used by the Seminole to treat "shock following alligator-bite".[2]
References

"Iris virginica". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 13 April 2015 – via The Plant List.
USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Iris virginica". The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team.
R. A. Fisher (1936). "The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems" (PDF). Annals of Eugenics. 7 (2): 179–188. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.1936.tb02137.x. hdl:2440/15227.
Kleinman, Kim (1999). "His Own Synthesis: Corn, Edgar Anderson, and Evolutionary Theory in the 1940s". Journal of the History of Biology. 32 (2): 293–320. ISSN 0022-5010. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
Missouri Botanical Garden: Iris virginica[permanent dead link]
The University of Michigan at Dearborn: Native American Ethnobotany of Iris virginica
Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (p. 41)

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