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Jasminum

Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Magnoliophyta
Classis: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Lamiales
Familia: Oleaceae
Genus: Jasminum
Species: J. angulare - J. angustifolium - J. arborescens - J. attenuatum - J. auriculatum - J. azoricum - J. beesianum - J. dichotomum - J. didymum - J. dispermum - J. elegans - J. elongatum - J. floridum - J. fluminense - J. fruticans - J. grandiflorum - J. humile - J. lanceolarium - J. laurifolium - J. mesnyi - J. multiflorum - J. multipartitum - J. nudiflorum - J. odoratissimum - J. officinale - J. parkeri - J. polyanthum - J. rex - J. sambac - J. simplicifolium - J. sinense - J. subhumile - J. subtriplinerve - J. tortuosum - J. urophyllum

Name

Jasminum L.

Vernacular names
Internationalization
Ελληνικά : Γιασεμί
English: Jasmin
Español: Jazmín
Türkçe: Yasemin
中文: 茉莉

Jasmine (Jasminum, pronounced /ˈdʒæzmɨnəm/,[4] via Arabic from the Persian yasmin, i.e. "gift from God",[5][6][7]) is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family (Oleaceae), with about 200 species, native to tropical and warm temperate regions of the Old World. The leaves can be either evergreen (green all year round) or deciduous (falling in autumn).


Species
Main article: List of Jasminum species

Species include:

* Jasminum abyssinicum Hochst. ex DC. – Forest jasmine
* Jasminum adenophyllum Wall. – Pinwheel Jasmine, Bluegrape jasmine, Princess jasmine, Che vang, Lai la co tuyen[8]
* Jasminum angulare Vahl
* Jasminum dichotomum Vahl – Gold Coast Jasmine[9]
* Jasminum didymum (indigenous to Samoa Islands)[10]
* Jasminum grandiflorum L. – Spanish Jasmine,[9] Royal Jasmine,[9] Catalonian Jasmine[9]
* Jasminum humile L. – Italian Yellow Jasmine[9]

Jasminum auriculatum at Talakona forest, in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh, India.
A double-flowered cultivar of Jasminum sambac in flower with an unopened bud. The flower smells like the tea as it opens.

* Jasminum lanceolarium Roxb.
* Jasminum mesnyi Hance – Japanese Jasmine,[9] Primrose Jasmine,[9] Yellow Jasmine[9]
* Jasminum multiflorum Hance – Indian Jasmine, Winter Jasmine[9]
* Jasminum multipartitum Hochst. - Starry Wild Jasmine
* Jasminum nervosum Lour.
* Jasminum odoratissimum L. – Yellow Jasmine[9]
* Jasminum officinale L. – Common Jasmine,[9] Poet's Jasmine,[9] jasmine,[9] jessamine[9]
* Jasminum parkeri Dunn – Dwarf Jasmine[11]
* Jasminum polyanthum Franch.
* Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton – Arabian Jasmine[9]
* Jasminum sinense Hemsl.
* Jasminum urophyllum Hemsl.


Cultivation and uses

Widely cultivated for its flowers, jasmine is enjoyed in the garden, as a house plant, and as cut flowers. The flowers are worn by women in their hair in southern and southeast Asia. The delicate jasmine flower opens only at night and may be plucked in the morning when the tiny petals are tightly closed, then stored in a cool place until night. The petals begin to open between six and eight in the evening, as the temperature lowers.

Jasmine Tea

Jasmine tea is consumed in China, where it is called jasmine-flower tea (茉莉花茶; pinyin: mò lì huā chá). Jasminum sambac flowers are also used to make so-called jasmine tea, which often has a base of green tea, but sometimes an Oolong base is used. Flowers and tea are "mated" in machines that control temperature and humidity. It takes four hours or so for the tea to absorb the fragrance and flavour of the jasmine blossoms, and for the highest grades, this process may be repeated as many as seven times. Because the tea has absorbed moisture from the flowers, it must be refired to prevent spoilage. The spent flowers may or may not be removed from the final product, as the flowers are completely dry and contain no aroma. Giant fans are used to blow away and remove the petals from the denser tea leaves. If present, they simply add visual appeal and are no indication of the quality of the tea.

In Okinawa, Japan, Jasmine Tea is known as Sanpin Cha (さんぴん茶).
[edit] Jasmine Syrup

The French are known for their jasmine syrup, most commonly made from an extract of jasmine flowers. In the United States, this French jasmine syrup is used to make jasmine scones and marshmallows.

Jasmine Essential Oil

Jasmine essential oil is in common use. Its flowers are either extracted by the labour-intensive method of enfleurage or through chemical extraction. It is expensive due to the large number of flowers needed to produce a small amount of oil. The flowers have to be gathered at night because the odour of jasmine is more powerful after dark. The flowers are laid out on cotton cloths soaked in olive oil for several days and then extracted leaving the true jasmine essence. Some of the countries producing jasmine essential oil are India, Egypt, China and Morocco.

Jasmine Absolute used in Perfume and Incense

Its chemical constituents include methyl anthranilate, indole, benzyl alcohol, linalool, and skatole. Many species also yield an absolute, which is used in perfumes and incense.

Cultural importance and other information


* In Syria, jasmine is the symbolic flower of Damascus, which is called the City of Jasmine.

* In Thailand, jasmine flowers are used as a symbol of the mother.

Jasmine is the national flower of the following countries/states:

* Tunisia, it's the national flower
* Indonesia, where the variety Jasminum sambac is the "puspa bangsa" (national flower), and goes by the name "Melati Putih". It is the most important flower in wedding ceremonies for ethnic Indonesians, especially in the island of Java.
* Pakistan, where Jasminum officinale is known as the "Chambeli" or "Yasmine" is the national flower.
* Philippines, where it is known as "Sampaguita", and is usually strung on garlands which are then used to adorn religious images.
* Hawaii In Hawaii, Arabian Jasmine is called Pikake and is perhaps the most popular of flowers. It is often strung in leis and is the subject of many songs.


[edit] Cultural Importance of Jasmine in India

* The jasmine flower, depending on variety, has different names in many languages in India, and only one name in others. Some of those names are:

malati mālatī मालती or mallika mallikā मल्लिका in Sanskrit.

chameli chamélī चमेली, juhi Juhī जूही, or motiya motiyā मोतिया in Hindi. The latter is a thicker variety on smaller shrubs which may also grow as a climbers. Its name, motiyā, refers to the flower being compared to a pearl in looks and beauty, since it is white, round and beautiful, motī meaning "pearl" in Hindi (from muktā, muktāmaṇi, or mauktika in Sanskrit, muktā also meaning "free" in the sense of "unbounded").

Jaaie, juie, saayalie, chamelie or mogaraa in Marathi. The latter is equivalent to motiyaa in Hindi. The former has smaller leaves and larger petals, while the second has larger leaves and smaller petals; the third is creamy in texture (saay meaning "cream" in Marathi); and the fourth is yet another variety.

In Oriya Jasmine is known as Mahli ମହ୍ଲି .Jasminum officinale is known as Jai(ଜାଇ) and Jasminum auriculatum is known as Juhi (ଜୁହି).
In Oriya culture Jasmine plays a big role . people use in rituals like marriage, Puja and Lord Jagannatha’s festivals . in Chandan Yatra of lord Jagannath takes bathe with water flavored in sandalwood paste and jasmine .
Juie in Bengali.

Mallige, Malle, jaaji, and iruvantige in Kannada. The double-flowered cultivar is called mooru or eLu suttina mallige.

Malle in Telugu. The double-flowered cultivar is called gundu malle.

Malligai in Tamil.

Jaisara and Chameli in [(Nepali)].

* In Tamil Nadu, jasmine is produced mainly in Madurai District, and is transported to Mumbai / Bombay for use there, as well as being exported to other countries. The city of Madurai is called Malligai Maanagar ("City of Jasmine").

* Jasmine is cultivated at Pangala, in Karnataka, India, and exported to Middle Eastern countries.

* Jasmine flowers are worn by women in their hair mainly for beauty and fragrance. They are also used in floral decorations for marriages and other important functions.

* Throughout most of India, especially in the western and southern states, including Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, etc., jasmine (along with many other flowers, including roses) is cultivated in private homes, within gardens or as potted plants. These flowers are used in regular worship at home as well as for hair ornaments (for the girls and women of the house). Jasmine is also cultivated commercially, for both the domestic purposes discussed above and other purposes (such as use in the perfume industry).

* Jasmine flower sellers (vendors) selling ready-made garlands of jasmine, or in the case of the thicker motiyaa (in Hindi) or mogaraa (in Marathi) varietal, bunches of jasmine, as well as flowers by weight, are a common sight on city streets in many parts of India. They may be found around entrances to temples, on major thoroughfares, and in major business areas (including bus stands). This is common as far north as Mumbai, and generally from Maharashtra downward through all of South India. Jasmine vendors may also be found in Kolkata, though roadside sales are fewer there, since in North India women and girls generally by tradition do not wear flowers in their hair.


As a weed

Jasminum fluminense, which is sometimes known by the inaccurate name "Brazilian Jasmine", is an invasive species in Hawaii and Florida.[12] J. dichotomum, also called Gold Coast Jasmine, is also an invasive weed in Florida.[13]

Other info

Jasmine gave name to the jasmonate plant hormones as methyl jasmonate isolated from the jasmine oil of Jasminum grandiflorum led to the dicovery of the molecular structure of jasmonates.[14]


References

1. ^ "Jasminum". Index Nominum Genericorum. International Association for Plant Taxonomy. http://botany.si.edu/ing/INGsearch.cfm?searchword=Jasminum. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
2. ^ "10. Jasminum Linnaeus". Chinese Plant Names 15: 307. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=116771. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
3. ^ UniProt. "Jasminum!" (HTML). http://beta.uniprot.org/taxonomy/4147. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
4. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607.
5. ^ "jasmine, -in, jessamine, -in", OED
6. ^ "jasmine." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.
7. ^ Metcalf, 1999, p. 123.
8. ^ Bluegrape jasmine
9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "GRIN Species Records of Jasminum accessdate=2008-12-13". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Area. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/splist.pl?6186.
10. ^ Whistler, W. Arthur (1978). "Vegetation of the Montane Region of Savai'i, Western Samoa". Pacific Science (The University Press of Hawai'i) 32 (1): 90. http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/1423/1/v32n1-79-94.pdf. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
11. ^ "Jasminum parkeri". NC State University. http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/factsheets/shrubs/jasminum_parkeri.html. Retrieved 2008-12-13.
12. ^ "Jasminum fluminense". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=JAFL.
13. ^ "Jasminum dichotomum". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=JADI2.
14. ^ Demole E (1962). "Isolement et détermination de la structure du jasmonate de méthyle, constituant odorant caractéristique de l'essence de jasmin". Helv Chim Acta 45: 675–85.

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